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Branches of scientific psychology
As we recall, psychology became an independent science only at the end of the 19th century and during the 20th century accumulated such a huge amount of scientific knowledge about the world of psychic phenomena that psychologists themselves often do not quite clearly realize how much they know. Psychology has become a very branched science, and specialists in one branch of psychology can no longer be sufficiently competent in another field of psychological knowledge and scientific research.
Scientific psychology, in turn, is divided into fundamental and applied. Fundamental psychology studies the mental phenomena characteristic of man (or animals) as a whole, the general psychological laws that occur in all areas of mental life. The branches of fundamental psychology include:
- general psychology,
- psychology of Personality,
- differential psychology,
- social Psychology,
- developmental psychology,
- psychology of abnormal development (or special psychology),
- comparative and zoopsychology.
General psychology studies the general properties and patterns of the functioning of the psyche of an adult. In general psychology, the general laws of cognitive, emotional processes, as well as processes of regulation of activity, mental states of a person are studied. Often, as a separate branch of fundamental psychology, personality psychology is singled out, which is engaged in the study of socially determined qualities of a person, general patterns of character, motivation, and self-awareness of a person. Differential psychology (or the psychology of individual differences) studies the individual psychological characteristics of people, their temperament, character, abilities, personality traits. Psychophysiology studies the relationship of mental phenomena with the work of the body, with the activity of the nervous system. Of particular scientific interest in psychophysiology is the study of the physiological mechanisms of brain activity, as a result of which mental processes, states, and human properties arise. Neuropsychology studies the anatomical and physiological foundations of higher mental functions. Specialists in neuropsychology study the neural processes in the human brain that underlie perception, memory, imagination, thinking, attention, emotions. Social psychology studies the psychic phenomena that arise in the process of people interacting with each other, people's understanding of each other, interpersonal relationships and the impact of people on each other. Development psychology (or developmental psychology) studies the general laws of development of various mental processes and qualities of a person. In developmental psychology, children's psychology, the psychology of a teenager, the psychology of youth, the psychology of an adult, and gerontopsychology (psychology of old age) are distinguished.
As a separate branch of scientific psychology, psychology of abnormal development (or special psychology) is distinguished, which studies the psychological problems associated with deviations from normal development. The psychology of abnormal development includes several sections. Oligophrenopsychology studies the pathology of mental development associated with congenital defects of the brain. Psycho-psychology studies the psychology of the development of a child with serious hearing defects. Tiflopsihologiya studies the psychology of the development of visually impaired and blind children. Pathopsychology studies painful changes in the psyche, patterns of mental activity disorders and personality traits in mental illness.
Zoopsychology studies the psyche of animals, congenital and acquired forms of their behavior. Comparative psychology compares the psyche of animals and humans.
Applied Psychology studies the general psychological problems that are characteristic of specific areas of professional activity of people. The branches of applied psychology include:
- pedagogical psychology,
- medical psychology,
- legal psychology,
- economic psychology,
- psychology of religion,
- sports psychology,
- labor psychology, including engineering, military, transport, aviation and space psychology, psychology of trade.
Pedagogical psychology studies the laws of teaching and educating a person. The sections of pedagogical psychology include the psychology of training and education, the psychology of a teacher, as well as the psychology of educational work with abnormal children. In pedagogical psychology, the problems of managing the process of assimilation of knowledge, techniques and skills of intellectual activity are examined, the psychological factors that influence the success of the learning process, the formation of thinking in students are clarified, the problems of students' relationships with each other, as well as with teachers and parents are studied, individual psychological differences between students, the features of educational work with children with deviations in mental development.
Medical psychology studies the psychological aspects of the doctor’s activities and patient behavior, mental manifestations of diseases; the role of the psyche in the occurrence and course of diseases; the role of the psyche in their treatment, as well as in the prevention of diseases and health promotion. Legal psychology deals with the application of psychological knowledge to the judicial and correctional field of activity. It is divided into judicial, criminological and penitentiary (or correctional) psychology. Economic psychology studies issues related to economic relations between people. Specialists in economic psychology study the problems of the market, supply and demand, the psychology of advertising. An important place in economic psychology is the psychology of trade, which studies the psychological problems of the interaction of the seller and the buyer, customer service. Political psychology studies the psychological foundations of political processes in society. Important problems include: the psychology of propaganda and agitation, the problems of the image of a politician and power, the study of mass socio-psychological processes. The psychology of religion studies the psychological problems of religious consciousness, ideas and feelings of believers. Sports psychology considers the psychological characteristics of the personality and activities of athletes, the conditions and means of an effective training process, as well as the psychological problems associated with competitions. Labor psychology is knowledge about the psychological characteristics of human labor activity, the psychological foundations of the scientific organization of labor (NOT). The task of specialists in labor psychology includes studying the psychological characteristics of people in connection with their professional activities, the laws governing the formation of labor skills, and clarifying the impact of the work environment on the state and effectiveness of human activities.
Labor psychology includes a number of branches of psychological knowledge: engineering psychology, aviation psychology, space psychology, military psychology.
A certain idea of the main spheres of modern psychology can also be given by a library-bibliographic classification, the knowledge of which is useful to psychologists when working with literature on any problem in library catalogs.
The structure of the branches of psychology according to the library and bibliographic classification
U91 History of Psychology.
U91 (0) World History of Psychology.
U91 (2) History of psychology in the USSR.
U91 (4/8) History of psychology in foreign countries.
J92 The development of the psyche. Genetic psychology.
U922 Zoopsychology and comparative psychology.
U923 Psychological aspect of the problems of anthropogenesis and the emergence of human consciousness.
J93 General Psychology.
U932 Mind and consciousness.
U933 Higher nervous activity as the physiological basis of the psyche.
U935 Mental processes and conditions.
U936 Psychology of activity, behavior.
U937 Psychology of personality.
U94 Psychology of certain types of activity. Branch (applied) psychology.
U940 Educational Psychology of Adults.
U941 Labor Psychology. Engineering (technical), aviation and space psychology.
U942 Military psychology.
U943 Sports Psychology.
U944 Psychology of reading and psychology of library work.
U945 Psychology of creativity. Psychology of scientific, scientific, technical and artistic activity.
U947 Legal (judicial) psychology.
U948 Medical Psychology.
U949 Other types of industry (applied) psychology.
U95 Social (public) psychology.
J951 Historical Psychology. The psychology of classes.
J952 Personality as a socio-psychological phenomenon.
U953 Psychological problems of social communication (communicativeness), the influence and mutual influence of people.
U954 Psychology of small groups (collectives). Team and personality.
U955 Massive phenomena of the psyche.
U956 Psychology of family, life, psychology of parenting in the family.
U957 Psychology of religiosity and atheistic education.
U958 Psychology of Nations (ethnic psychology).
U959 Socio-psychological problems of individual branches of psychology.
J96 Special conditions and phenomena of the psyche.
U98 Children's psychology.
U983 General problems of child psychology.
U984 Branches of child psychology.
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Branches of scientific psychology
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