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Teaching professions and specialties

The functions of the teacher vary significantly depending on the nature of the teaching profession and its specialties.

Profession - a type of labor activity that requires some training. Teaching professions include: preschool teacher, teacher, additional education teacher, social teacher, trainer, university teacher. Usually professions are divided into several specialties, which are understood as limited (due to the division of labor) type of activity within the framework of one profession.

So, in the most popular pedagogical profession - the teacher - a large number of specialties are distinguished: primary school teacher, history teacher, teacher of mathematics, geography, etc. A peculiar kind of dual is the profession of a teacher-psychologist, the features of which are described in chapter 4.

Now we note that the number of pedagogical professions and specialties is constantly growing. So, for example, 10 years ago in our country there were practically no social educators. In recent years, the profession of a school teacher-psychologist has become popular. In connection with the reduction of extended day groups in schools, the need for appropriate teachers is reduced, but there is a need for a freed class teacher (the term is not entirely successful), the main function of which is to organize educational work in the classroom. Beginning to revive the profession of tutor and home teacher.

In the developing educational system, two seemingly opposite trends are manifested: the strengthening of narrow specialization and the integration of professional pedagogical activity. It is noted that if the teacher owns several related specialties, then he has more opportunities for the implementation of intersubject communications, for establishing contact with students.

Teacher-psychologist as a profession. Teachers do not always understand how to find an individual approach to each child, to identify and maximize their abilities, to cope with the problems that arise in the educational process. There are several reasons for this: lack of time in the lesson, workload in educational matters, which does not allow to pay due attention to educational work, lack of special psychological knowledge. At the same time, extensive information has been accumulated in domestic and foreign psychology, which makes it possible to build education and upbringing in schools based on knowledge of the laws of mental and personal development of school-age children.

The competence of the teacher-psychologist allows timely recording of qualitative changes in the mental development of students, taking into account their age and individual characteristics and, on the basis of this, helping the teaching staff of the school to use the tools and methods of educational work as efficiently as possible. That is why there was a need to introduce in schools the position of a teacher-psychologist with deep theoretical and practical knowledge in both pedagogy and psychology.

What is included in the competence of the teacher-psychologist? The answer to this question is given by the “General characteristic of the specialty 031000 Pedagogy and Psychology (see Appendix 2). Immediately make a reservation that in more detail the tasks, forms and methods of work of a teacher-psychologist will be described in subsequent chapters of this manual. This section will focus only on the most general characteristics of the profession.

1. Psychological support of the educational process. This direction is one of the main in the work of the teacher-psychologist and includes a variety of activities. In order to ensure the educational process, the psychologist must have appropriate knowledge about the features of its course, age-related characteristics of children, the development of their cognitive sphere (attention, memory, thinking, speech) and the sphere of communication. He should be able to conduct monitoring of children and diagnostics (psychological testing and interviewing) in order to identify the above features. Based on the results of observation and diagnosis, the pedagogue-psychologist organizes work to correct and develop in children the abilities, skills and qualities of the person necessary for the successful assimilation of knowledge.

The teacher-psychologist works both with “ordinary” students, and with gifted students, and children who have problems in learning or behavior. For this, he must also have the appropriate knowledge, methods of diagnosis, correction and development in the field of work with gifted, lagging children and children with deviations in behavior.

Teachers, school administrators and parents are also participants in the education process. The teacher-psychologist organizes and conducts work with them. This can be education (teaching teachers and parents the basics of psychological knowledge), counseling, assistance in solving complex cases in the process of training and education.

2. Work on socialization and the formation of a common personality culture, including the psychological culture of students, teachers and parents. In the process of socialization, the child learns the experience accumulated by mankind, the norms and rules that will help him become a full citizen and a member of his modern society. Socialization is carried out primarily in the family and school, while the family has a greater influence on the formation of behavioral norms and value orientations of the child, and the school on the general social orientation. In this regard, it is important in what environment the child grows and forms, what norms, values, psychological knowledge and skills he learns. In addition to education, the educational psychologist is called upon to carry out work to correct the child’s social environment (if necessary), and to develop appropriate behavioral skills in a modern democratic society.
Work on the development of a child’s personality, his ability to communicate with people in a variety of situations is part of the work of a teacher-psychologist on the socialization of a child.

3. Promoting the protection of individual rights. The protection of the rights of the child is handled by several public services (for example, social welfare agencies, educational authorities). Non-profit (human rights and public) organizations are also involved in it. However, they do not have direct connections with children; therefore, a pedagogical psychologist who enjoys the confidence of the child and observes him in a real situation of learning and communicating in the family is called upon to become a kind of “lawyer” who draws the attention of relevant services and organizations to a real violation of the rights of the child in the family or at school. In his work, he is guided by the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the UN General Assembly (Appendix 1), the requirements of which are binding on the territory of Russia, as well as the Law on Education and other legislative acts.

4. Work on harmonization of the social environment of the educational institution. Each educational institution has its own social environment, which is divided into external (school district; the impact on the school of requirements from society as a whole and microsocium represented by parents, other educational institutions, enterprises and organizations) and internal (socio-psychological climate in the pedagogical and student school staff). In relations with the external environment, the school administration and the teaching staff play a leading role. The pedagogue-psychologist can do his bit by doing psychological education of parents, preparing students for independent life, taking into account the social order of the society, profile of work, regional requirements, as well as the specifics of enterprises and educational institutions.

The teacher-psychologist plays a large role in harmonizing the internal environment of the educational institution. Relationships in the administration – teacher – student triad do not always proceed smoothly and require close attention on the part of the educational psychologist. The same applies to communication within the teaching and student groups. Diagnosing communication problems, optimizing interaction is only part of the work of a teacher-psychologist in this direction. Great attention is also required by children with deviant behavior.

Basic concepts: teacher, teacher, profession, specialty, pedagogical abilities, pedagogical orientation, pedagogical skill, pedagogical technique, professional competence, socialization, social environment.

Problem questions and practical tasks

1. Do you agree with the statement that with the development of society the role of pedagogical activity increases? Why?

2. Prepare for a discussion on one of the topics that the teacher will determine: “Are the teaching professions prestigious?”, “Teacher profession: pros and cons,” “What should a modern teacher be like? "

3. Test yourself for tests of willingness to work with people.

4. Analyze which professionally significant qualities you have developed well, which are not enough.

5. Try to say a short phrase to the child with the maximum number of shades.

6. Try using pantomime to explain to your comrade some uncomplicated task (“hand over the book to the library”, etc.).

7. Write a creative work on one of the proposed topics: “A teacher in my life”, “My pedagogical ideal”, “I can become a teacher because ...”

8. Why did it become necessary to introduce the position of educational psychologist in educational institutions? What are its main functions?

Tests for self-control

1. What is the main social function (appointment) of the teacher:

a) transfers the generalized experience of older generations; b) teaches children; c) brings up children?

2. What primarily determines the teacher’s greater employment:

a) the constant need to work on yourself (improve professionalism); b) a large number of meetings; c) the need to take a large number of lessons in order to earn?

3. What moral quality is most important for the teacher:

a) love for children; b) responsibility; c) patriotism?

4. What component of pedagogical activity is associated with the ability to establish and maintain contact with people:

a) constructive; b) communicative; c) value-orientational?

5. What is a professional pedagogical orientation:

a) a set of sustainable motives that orient the individual to pedagogical activity; b) a set of personality traits that ensure the success of pedagogical activity; c) sustained interest in pedagogical activity?

6. Pedagogical excellence is:

a) a high level of development of pedagogical abilities; b) a high level of proficiency in professional pedagogical equipment; c) a set of qualities that ensure a high level of professional pedagogical activity?

7. What is a pedagogical technique:

a) the main ways of working with students; b) requirements for the organization of the pedagogical process; c) a set of skills, techniques, allowing to manage the pedagogical process?

8. What is the main task of a teacher-psychologist at school:

a) conduct research; b) provide psychological assistance to children in education and development; c) help teachers solve problems?
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Teaching professions and specialties

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