Licensed books on medicine
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Read more about the introduction
In fact, as a rule, the introduction is written at the last moment, when all the work is ready. Below I will describe what it consists of so that you do not have any questions, and you correctly designed it.
The introduction consists of: determining the relevance of the problem being studied, the purpose of the work, the subject and object of research, hypotheses, tasks, methods used, the theoretical and methodological basis of the study, the theoretical and empirical significance of the work, its novelty, and a description of the structure of the work. All of these blocks are required! The corresponding block names are highlighted in bold and italics. For example:
Theoretically, the robots are fasting in greater Roskritty, the development of knowledge in this area, the remnants are not much vivchena and it is important to vivchenenya.
Read more about each block.
The relevance of the investigated problem is described approximately on the page. It is important here to explain why, in our opinion, it is so important to take for consideration the topic that we have taken. Well, if some statistics are given in the field of the selected problem, or you describe the state of affairs in our country. You can end with the phrase: “The very problem of dosljennya ель velmi relevant to Denmark’s moment” has been addressed.
Next, we describe the purpose of the work. In fact, she repeats the topic. That is, if your theme is “Special Factors and Situation Officials of Experience Living Crisis of“ Middle Life ””, then the aim of the work will be to improve special factors and situation of Officials of Life experience of Crisis of “middle life”.
After that, we determine the subject and object of work. An object is a narrower (particular, concrete) aspect of an object. When we formulate the subject, we answer the question: what area of psychology are we exploring? About what - about what area of science is our work? For example, in the subject “Intrapsychological emotional intelligence on the psychological well-being”, the subject will be the psychological well-being of the person, because it is the center of work, and we want to know how intrapsychological emotional intelligence affects it. In the subject of “Art therapy is a better treatment of the psychological camp, I became ill with oncology,” the subject will be art therapy as a means of psychological work.
An object, as I wrote above, is a narrower (particular, concrete) aspect of the subject. I will consider the same topics as an example. In the subject “Intrapsychological emotional intelligence on the psychological well-being of specialty”, the object will be intrapsychological intelligence as one of the factors affecting the psychological well-being of a person. In the topic "Art therapy, I’ve become better off for a psychological child, ill for oncology," the object will be art therapy as one of the means of working with the psychological experiences of children with cancer.
In both cases, it turned out that the object and the subject, firstly, are related to the topic (this is important!), And secondly, the object is a particular aspect of the subject. Anyway, if you doubt the wording of the subject and object, we can always discuss this.
Next, we formulate the hypotheses of the study. There may be one hypothesis in the study, there may be several. This is your assumption regarding the problem being investigated. What do you expect? What will be connected with what and how? Carefully use statements about influence in the hypothesis, since it is very difficult to trace influence in its pure form, for this, as a rule, longitudinal research methods are used.
For the works of students of 4-5 courses and masters, it is very good if the hypotheses are divided into conceptual and empirical. I hope you remember how they differ. Conceptual ones claim some kind of relationship between psychological phenomena “in general”, at the loss of terms; empirical - translate the same relationship "into numbers." For example:
The conceptual hypothesis is: there are singing singularities and situational factors, which are connected with the recipients of the engagement to the communicator.
1. Communities, such as recipients, like most, more proficient, more and more, a high indicator of the assessment of при х нь о б б б лив лив лив лив......
2. Communicators, according to the recipients of such recipes, can speak as much as possible, be sure that they are reserved, and be heard by listeners as they are.
3. Recipients, such as a positive and positive attitude for an hour at a time when the communicator is more likely to be used, as much as possible to better assess the qualities of the communicator itself, as it is.
Recipes, which is more important than the previous one, the best transmission, and the other is the same as the one before the transfer process.
The next part of the introduction is the definition of work tasks.
They are usually standard in wording, for example:
1) analysis of literary and foreign knowledge of problems and atracks;
2) the formula of hypothesis;
3) add methodology using the methodology of hypothesis (this task is excluded for second-year students);
4) Yakisnya kіlkіsnyi analiz otrimanikh empirichnyh danykh (the task is excluded for course students of the 2nd year);
5) negotiation of the ransom results and visions for the pledge bags, establishing the low-profile prospects for developing the stated problems.
The next part of the introduction is a description of the research methods you use. For works of the 2nd year, this is only a theoretical analysis of the sources of literature, it is possible to use methods of synthesis and modeling (if you yourself have come up with some kind of table or made out what you read in a diagram, etc.).
For students of the remaining courses here - the more the better. Often this is kіlkіsniy and yakіsniy analysis (if you even thought of something, you can already write it), content analysis (very desirable for senior courses), statistical analysis (starting from the third year is needed for everyone). But about statistics, etc., more on pages 20-21.
Further, the theoretical and methodological basis of the study is given. Here we write about the provisions of psychological science that you relied on when writing your work, and about the luminaries who dealt with this topic before you. Attention: you ALWAYS rely on some provisions and some conclusions made before you, otherwise where are we so smart from? Even if it seems to you that you are a pioneer, and that no one has ever written about something like you, you look wider. Take the problem in a broader perspective. If this, for example, is gaming addiction, then in order to start doing this, you would need to know something about the psychology of the game (and this, for example, L. S. Vygotsky, D. B. Elkonin, N. P. Anikeeva ), about the causes and consequences of dependencies (here a whole army of researchers - for example, K. S. Lisetskiy, V. D. Mendelevich, G. Dowling, etc.), about the features of computer / virtual subculture (this is in the works of I.V. .Burlakova, M.S. Ivanova, etc.). As a result, the paragraph on the theoretical and methodological basis of the work should look something like this:
The methodological theoretical basis of the robot is to lay the theoretical views on the image problem in psychology (I. M. Sechenov, B. G. Ananyev, S. L. Rubinshtein, O. M. Leontyev); psychology of the theory of special features of the teacher (A. A. Bodalov); theoretical data, describe the understanding of pedagogical activity, pedagogical mastery, pedagogical discipline (V. A. Kan-Kalik, G. K. Markova, O. S. Makarenko, V. O. Sukhomlinsky); Psychological conceptual image of a successful reader (O. O. Kalyuzhny)
After that we give one paragraph about the novelty of the work. It is clear that this topic has already been studied a hundred times along and across, and maybe there are directly the same term papers with the same topics. But we do it for the first time! Therefore, here we answer the question: why does it seem to us that our work is new? What did we do differently - not like in all those sources that we read when we were preparing a theoretical review? For example, it might sound like this:
The novelty of the results is achieved by taking a look at the roster of special questionnaires, setting aside a metric of evaluators for singing situations and special factors. In addition, psychological knowledge, due to the phenomenon of atracity, it is important to see, the fragments of the same name are not very clearly marked between. To this, the contribution to a wider wide range of aspects will manifest the phenomenon аспект important for the science of knowledge.
The last part of the introduction is a description of the structure of the work. Here we write: the robot is stored at the entrance, ... distribution, visnovka and the list of literature, some cash ... dzherel; Illustrated ... drawings that ... tables; вміщує ... додатків.
It is important to ensure that all blocks are interconnected. The relevance of one problem is sometimes described, and the hypothesis concerns a completely different one. Therefore, again, we subtract everything and think!
And one more important point: even if it seems that the introduction will have to be written for a week, and all this is very difficult and capacious, strict requirements are set for it in volume: no more than 2-3 pages!
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Read more about the introduction
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