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The concept of "personality." Personality and its professional characteristics

To discuss issues related to the personal characteristics of the subjects of a particular professional activity, you must first determine the boundaries of the concept of "personality". Otherwise, the conversation runs the risk of being pointless or blurred.

The author of the Great Explanatory Psychological Dictionary, Arthur Reber, a well-known American psychologist, ironically writes in an article on personality that it is “a term so complex to define and having such a wide scope that the wise author uses it as the title of a chapter and then freely writes about this, not accepting any responsibility for the definitions, if they are presented in the text. In order not to repeat the recklessness of several dozen unreasonable authors here (G.V. Allport, starting in 1927, managed to collect about 50 different definitions from literature, and only heaven knows how many of them can be found today), we will characterize this term not definitively , but rather in accordance with its role in personality theory. This approach seems to be the best, since the meaning of this term for each author tends to be colored by his theoretical predisposition and empirical tools used to evaluate and verify the theory ”[BTPS. T. 1. S. 411-412].

Indeed, the fate of the term "personality", like any other conceptual concept of a particular science, is very complex and full of upheavals. It is impractical to wait for a final and universally recognized definition of a person because each scientific psychological direction “interprets” this concept taking into account the specificity of its views on all other psychological processes and phenomena.

During the 20th century, such concepts of personality were created as psychoanalytic (Z. Freud and his followers), psychodynamic theories (which are the development of psychoanalytic), typological (K.G. Jung), constitutional (V.G.Sheldon), theory of personality devil (R.B. Cattell), behaviorist (J.B. Watson), humanistic (A. Maslow, C. Rogers, V. Frankl), theory of social learning (A. Bandura), situationalism (V. Michel), interactionism (Titchner) and others.

Recognizing the certain correctness of each of the above theories, we take the following for the scope of the concept of “personality”: personality is a complex psychological formation that includes

physical (physiological), intellectual, emotional, strong-willed, social and spiritual components.

Putting the first and last in a row with the rest may cause disagreement among readers. Nevertheless, we are convinced that a person as an integral psychophysical organism cannot be arbitrarily divided into parts, and moreover, it is impossible to imagine that some of these parts live a separate life from others. Physical needs and state of health and even just appearance (for example, hair color and growth) cannot but affect the emotional-volitional sphere of the personality, the quality of its functioning in society, the ways and styles of performing different types of activities (the higher the person, the it’s easier for him to play basketball) and even on intellectual processes (it is not for nothing that people say that this or that degree of fullness of the “belly” affects the level of readiness for learning).
Equally important for the life of all personality levels, if you recall Maslow’s theory of self-actualization, are the needs of a higher, spiritual level - the desire for creative self-expression, the desire to go beyond the limits of one’s own personality to the transpersonal level, to the level of communication with God. An artist doesn’t create for the purpose of making money (“Inspiration is not for sale!”), But because he cannot help but create, because something incomprehensible to him makes him take up a brush, a pen, sit down at a piano or go to a ballet class every morning . A true believer does not pray to pray for himself, but because he cannot feel the fullness of life without talking to God. The heroes who sacrificed their lives in the war for their homeland did not do so out of selfish motives - they simply could not imagine how otherwise.

The concept of self-actualizing personalities began to develop in contrast to the theory of personality that reigned supreme until then as an almost inevitably neurotic entity (which is characteristic of psychoanalysis). R. Assagioli - author of the theory and practical direction of psychosynthesis

(the name itself speaks of "pushing it away" from psychoanalysis) -

writes: “Recently, many researchers have realized that this framework

[that is, the framework of the pathopsychological approach to personality] is pressured by them, and they turned their attention to factors previously denied by them, which play a significant role not only in the lives of ordinary people, but also in the lives of more highly developed - "self-actualizing" - individuals, as they were successfully called Goldstein and Maslow. The importance and value of ethical principles and religious aspirations for human nature was emphasized by Allport, Angyal, Baruk, Caruso, Frankl, Fromm, Jung, Maslow, May, Progoff, Rank, Sorokin, Urban and others?

<...>.

? By the vastness of the list and by the fact that most of the names are not very widely known to the Russian public, it is possible to determine how this tradition is rooted in Western psychotherapy and how

We nevertheless believe, ”Assagioli writes further,“ that even in this case some caution will not hurt, because there is always a danger of going to the opposite extreme, and signs of such "overcompensation" are already noticeable. Some representatives of the new trend are inclined to return to the previous concept of man as an integral personality, which, unfortunately, is far from the truth. The desire for unity was rightly described as the basic and normal desire of the individual, but this fact has nothing to do with the illusory idea that the individual is already organic and harmoniously functioning ”[Assagioli. S. 52,

53].

So, having determined the boundaries of the concept of “personality”, we can proceed to consider the personal specificity of professionals in the field of practical psychology, since it is in activity that a person is realized as a subject.
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