about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
Next >>

The concept of "personality." Personality and its professional characteristics

To discuss issues related to the personal characteristics of the subjects of a particular professional activity, you must first determine the boundaries of the concept of "personality". Otherwise, the conversation runs the risk of being pointless or blurred.

The author of the Great Explanatory Psychological Dictionary, Arthur Reber, a well-known American psychologist, ironically writes in an article on personality that it is “a term so complex to define and having such a wide scope that the wise author uses it as the title of a chapter and then freely writes about this, not accepting any responsibility for the definitions, if they are presented in the text. In order not to repeat the recklessness of several dozen unreasonable authors here (G.V. Allport, starting in 1927, managed to collect about 50 different definitions from literature, and only heaven knows how many of them can be found today), we will characterize this term not definitively , but rather in accordance with its role in personality theory. This approach seems to be the best, since the meaning of this term for each author tends to be colored by his theoretical predisposition and empirical tools used to evaluate and verify the theory ”[BTPS. T. 1. S. 411-412].

Indeed, the fate of the term "personality", like any other conceptual concept of a particular science, is very complex and full of upheavals. It is impractical to wait for a final and universally recognized definition of a person because each scientific psychological direction “interprets” this concept taking into account the specificity of its views on all other psychological processes and phenomena.

During the 20th century, such concepts of personality were created as psychoanalytic (Z. Freud and his followers), psychodynamic theories (which are the development of psychoanalytic), typological (K.G. Jung), constitutional (V.G.Sheldon), theory of personality devil (R.B. Cattell), behaviorist (J.B. Watson), humanistic (A. Maslow, C. Rogers, V. Frankl), theory of social learning (A. Bandura), situationalism (V. Michel), interactionism (Titchner) and others.

Recognizing the certain correctness of each of the above theories, we take the following for the scope of the concept of “personality”: personality is a complex psychological formation that includes

physical (physiological), intellectual, emotional, strong-willed, social and spiritual components.

Putting the first and last in a row with the rest may cause disagreement among readers. Nevertheless, we are convinced that a person as an integral psychophysical organism cannot be arbitrarily divided into parts, and moreover, it is impossible to imagine that some of these parts live a separate life from others. Physical needs and state of health and even just appearance (for example, hair color and growth) cannot but affect the emotional-volitional sphere of the personality, the quality of its functioning in society, the ways and styles of performing different types of activities (the higher the person, the it’s easier for him to play basketball) and even on intellectual processes (it is not for nothing that people say that this or that degree of fullness of the “belly” affects the level of readiness for learning).
Equally important for the life of all personality levels, if you recall Maslow’s theory of self-actualization, are the needs of a higher, spiritual level - the desire for creative self-expression, the desire to go beyond the limits of one’s own personality to the transpersonal level, to the level of communication with God. An artist doesn’t create for the purpose of making money (“Inspiration is not for sale!”), But because he cannot help but create, because something incomprehensible to him makes him take up a brush, a pen, sit down at a piano or go to a ballet class every morning . A true believer does not pray to pray for himself, but because he cannot feel the fullness of life without talking to God. The heroes who sacrificed their lives in the war for their homeland did not do so out of selfish motives - they simply could not imagine how otherwise.

The concept of self-actualizing personalities began to develop in contrast to the theory of personality that reigned supreme until then as an almost inevitably neurotic entity (which is characteristic of psychoanalysis). R. Assagioli - author of the theory and practical direction of psychosynthesis

(the name itself speaks of "pushing it away" from psychoanalysis) -

writes: “Recently, many researchers have realized that this framework

[that is, the framework of the pathopsychological approach to personality] is pressured by them, and they turned their attention to factors previously denied by them, which play a significant role not only in the lives of ordinary people, but also in the lives of more highly developed - "self-actualizing" - individuals, as they were successfully called Goldstein and Maslow. The importance and value of ethical principles and religious aspirations for human nature was emphasized by Allport, Angyal, Baruk, Caruso, Frankl, Fromm, Jung, Maslow, May, Progoff, Rank, Sorokin, Urban and others?


? By the vastness of the list and by the fact that most of the names are not very widely known to the Russian public, it is possible to determine how this tradition is rooted in Western psychotherapy and how

We nevertheless believe, ”Assagioli writes further,“ that even in this case some caution will not hurt, because there is always a danger of going to the opposite extreme, and signs of such "overcompensation" are already noticeable. Some representatives of the new trend are inclined to return to the previous concept of man as an integral personality, which, unfortunately, is far from the truth. The desire for unity was rightly described as the basic and normal desire of the individual, but this fact has nothing to do with the illusory idea that the individual is already organic and harmoniously functioning ”[Assagioli. S. 52,


So, having determined the boundaries of the concept of “personality”, we can proceed to consider the personal specificity of professionals in the field of practical psychology, since it is in activity that a person is realized as a subject.
Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

The concept of "personality." Personality and its professional characteristics

  1. Correlation of concepts professional orientation, professional self-determination and professional suitability of an individual
    The formation of professional suitability, the formation of a professional is inextricably linked with self-determination of a person, that is, with self-realization, self-affirmation, self-improvement, self-knowledge. This process is due to the manifestations of internal resources, forces, attitudes towards the professional formation of personality and its development. Self-determination of personality is a conscious act of identifying and
  2. The concept of personality in psychology. The essence of personality and the factors of its formation
    In psychological science, the category of "personality" refers to the number of basic concepts. However, the concept of personality is not purely psychological and is studied by all social sciences, including philosophy, sociology, pedagogy. From the perspective of psychological science, a person is a specific person, taken in the system of his stable socially determined psychological characteristics, which
  3. Professional fears - indicators of the regulatory crisis of the professional formation of the personality of a school psychologist
    In domestic and foreign studies, the problem of crises in the professional formation of an individual is closely connected with the age periodization of human life. The boundaries of adulthood are differently determined by various researchers. CE Pinyaev and N.V. Andreev believes that such a variety in determining the boundaries of the period under consideration can be explained by the action of temporary, economic, social and
    A personality is a specific person in a TOTAL OF PROPERTIES and qualities that manifest themselves in activities and characterize him as a member of this society. We judge the serviceman of the navy as a person by the totality of those properties and qualities that characterize him as a citizen of a socialist state, performing specific duties to protect the interests of the motherland at sea.
  5. Course work. Person and team. The interaction of the individual and the collective in the conditions of military service, 2011
    The theoretical aspect of the individual and the collective. The concept of personality in psychology. The essence of personality and the factors of its formation. The concept and essence of the military team. Stages and features of the formation of a military team. Analysis of the characteristics of the interaction of the individual and the collective in the conditions of military service. Features of the psychology of relationships among military personnel. Diagnostics of conflicts in military
  6. Gender characteristics of personality
    The complex of gender characteristics of a person includes gender identity, masculine and feminine personality traits, stereotypes and attitudes associated with polyotypic forms and patterns of behavior. Individual gender characteristics are not always closely interrelated, since they depend on several different factors. Each of the gender characteristics may have its own story.
    Any activity, including professional, leaves its mark on a person. Work can contribute to personal development, but can also have negative consequences for the individual. Probably, it is impossible to find professional activities that would not have such negative consequences. The problem is the balance, the ratio of positive and negative changes in the personality of the employee.
  8. The concept of personality in military psychology
    A personality is a specific person who is a representative of a certain society (social group), engaged in a specific type of activity, aware of his attitude to the environment and having his own individual psychological characteristics. A person is determined by: what and how she knows, what and how she values, with whom and how she communicates, what is the measure of her responsibility for her actions,
  9. The concept of psychology of the personality of a serviceman
    A personality, as a psychological phenomenon, is formed on the basis of consciousness, the carrier of which is a specific person. Therefore, for a more complete understanding of the essence and nature of the personality of a serviceman, we must trace its appearance and development in ontogenesis. No one doubts that a person is born into a person already. This is where genetic predestination comes about.
  10. Correlation of the ideal "peak" of personality development, its real state and method of improvement as an acmeological model of personality
    The subject of acmeology is the improvement of the personality in life, activity (profession, communication), leading to the maximum self-realization of the personality and the optimal way of implementation - the strategic nature of life, high professionalism, competent implementation of activities as a subject. Perfection of the essence of personality is achieved by the optimal integration of its psychological
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019