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As is clear from what has been said, in psychology — as in most other sciences — there are areas focused primarily on gaining knowledge, research (although practical recommendations can also be made there), and 1 areas that specifically “serve” practice — labor, educational , medical, etc. or aimed at helping people experiencing difficulties in their personal lives. The so-called practical psychology is built on the basis of the latter.
The field of activity of a practical psychologist includes psychological diagnostics (that is, a description of the state of objects that, depending on the field of work, can be a person — in various respects, groups, organizations; this description is carried out on the basis of specially developed methods, which are discussed below ), the development of recommendations for changing the situation and direct work with people based on the use of special psychological techniques — systems of techniques that allow, depending on specific problems , improve mutual relations between people, ease suffering, help to master the techniques of organizing one’s own activity, etc. (The choice of techniques depends mainly on what kind of psychological system — activity theory, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, humanistic psychology, etc. The psychologist is oriented) .
In our country, a practical psychologist works primarily in the structure of the psychological service * of the institution (sometimes representing this service alone!) Or the center of psychological counseling, and non-state psychological consultations have recently been developing.
Psychological services are special units in the structure of enterprises and organizations. They found the greatest development in industry and education.
The tasks of psychological services are quite diverse. So, at industrial enterprises, psychologists are engaged in the development and implementation of measures aimed at increasing production efficiency — naturally, psychological measures related to changing the psychological climate in groups (teams, shifts, workshops, etc.), relationships at various levels of management, interpersonal interactions, attitudes to work, improving jobs, organizing labor, staffing, etc. The task of psychologists is to resolve interpersonal conflicts, consultations staff testing about relationships in the workplace and in the family, personal problems.
In many ways, the psychological service of the school is similar (not only a secondary school is meant, but also a kindergarten, vocational education institutions, orphanages), but, of course, with its own specifics: its focus is on creating conditions under which it would be possible the most harmonious development of the child’s personality. Therefore, the psychologist has to work with conditions that impede the harmonious development, with events, situations, circumstances that do not allow the child to fully improve personally and intellectually; this is what causes the need for psychological intervention. The reasons that cause often very sad psycho-
'"Sometimes the term" psychological service "refers to the entire scope of practical psychology.
The consequences for the child are manifold.
This may be the child’s relationship with the teacher *, the absence or incorrect application of an individual approach in educational work, the rejection of the child by the class or important fellow practitioners, the generally poor socio-psychological climate in the classroom and school, family problems. Accordingly, the psychologist’s tasks include monitoring the state of the child, group (psychodiagnostics), preventing possible causes of negative states of the child (psychoprophylaxis, primarily in the form of working with parents and teachers on their “psychological education” and in the form of working with the child — his psychological preparation to possible potentially traumatic situations; the response in the work with a psychologist of those personality problems that can cause interpersonal conflicts, etc.), practical work on “straightening Niyu "negative psychological situation (psychocorrection). In this regard, a common form of work of a psychologist is psychological counseling of children, parents, teachers on personal, family, professional problems. An important task of a school psychologist is to prepare children for life after school; one of the main areas here is vocational guidance, taking into account the inclinations and abilities of the child.
So, we have identified three main areas of activity of a practical psychologist: psychodiagnostics, psychoprophylaxis and “psychocorrection. Close to psychocorrection is psychotherapy; Acting, in fact, its special part related to the treatment of impaired behavior with the help of psychological techniques (as opposed to medical treatment). We said “treatment of behavior”, using the definition of J. Godf-Roy (3); this not entirely successful expression is partly forced, since not all therapeutic schools use the concept of “therapy” in relation to the individual. Nevertheless, most often psychotherapy is addressed primarily to personality problems that put a person on the edge of mental disorders or translate through this edge, which is associated with painful experiences,
* Psychologists talk about the so-called didactogeny - the child’s painful mental states (anxiety, fears) caused by tactlessness of the teacher, which can even be the basis of nezaz.
disturbances in social behavior, changes in consciousness and self-consciousness, etc. The forms of psychotherapeutic work are diverse, and we will consider the main ones in the section devoted to methods of psychology.
EXPLANATORY DICTIONARY TERMS
physiology of activity
political psychology psycholinguistics psychology of religion legal psychology pedagogical psychology comparative psychology zoopsychology developmental psychology psychology of labor differential psychology practical psychology psychological service
We do not offer special tasks and questions in this section: conscientious work with the dictionary will help to achieve a result.
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