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Practical psychologist as a creator
When some practitioners say that you can create a wonderful scenario of some kind of psycho-correctional or developmental activity that can be broadcast and work - that is, be effective - regardless of the personality of the host and the specifics of the group or individual client, this causes, to say the least perplexed. In general, in our life, and even more so in psychological practice, everything happens - "There is much in the world, friend Horatio, which our sages have never dreamed of!" - but still: if the script created by a certain specialist, tested on a number of groups or clients, would then be “put into serial production”, it would be used “by carbon copy” by apologists and, regardless of weather conditions, it would provide every time the highest degree of efficiency - that's all! You can wash your hands and close all research psychological institutes. And at the same time pedagogical universities.
All global methodological, methodological, practical problems of psychology and pedagogy would be solved at once. Because - here it is, a magic wand, a universal tool for "correcting" and "growing" a harmonious personality. Take and use! And actualized subjects of self-development will go in orderly rows. True, from an incubator.
I recall someone’s joke about one ambitious poet: “I wrote five poems about love - I closed the topic.”
You can, of course, dream: here is an ingenious teacher-innovator who describes his lessons in detail and even shows them on TV - hundreds of thousands of less talented teachers all over the country immediately reproduce these lessons with a comma precision and the result: millions of lazy and hard-thinking students suddenly flare up with indefatigable fire of knowledge and personally grow right before our eyes. Here and there, like mushrooms, many giftedness multiply. A couple of years - and a new formation of people has been created, ready, in principle, to live even under communism.
What? Unfortunately (or maybe, fortunately?) - Utopia. Tried already - and describe, and demonstrate, and imitate. And they tried it more than once, especially with innovative teachers, it doesn’t work. They do everything like a teacher-genius, but no - one of the students will come out at the wrong time and spit cud. And he, dear, has to yell and be distracted. In general, children interfere. Without them, talented pedagogical technology would have been wonderful introduced.
The situation is the same with the scenarios of psycho-correctional classes.
There are no magic scenarios, no universal tools, no miraculous recipes suitable for all occasions. Because the talk about the uniqueness of each person’s personality, which has long been sore mouth, is not empty. Because we are really all different: both students, and teachers, and presenters, and members of groups. Because every day is "not like yesterday." And because - “you cannot step twice into the same river”. And besides, more than once reminded the best minds: it is not a method that brings up, but a personality.
Therefore, they are taught at pedagogical universities and universities not to replicate someone’s plans and scenarios for classes, but to the general principles of their creation, methodological foundations and methodological techniques.
No one has yet managed to create an algorithm for educating the soul. Probably because for each soul it is different, because each soul develops in its own special way. So psychology is not a science? Science, of course, since it is able to study the general laws, mechanisms and manifestations of the psyche. But where psychology comes in contact with a living concrete soul, there it turns from science into art. And for art, as you know, the basic rule is the priority of exceptions.
The artist who created the work of art, with all the desire, will not be able to convey to the students the algorithm for creating a truly talented work. That is, he will certainly be able to exert himself and restore the mechanical chain of steps-actions that led to the creation of his own masterpiece, he will even be able to explain to his students and make them memorize this chain. But there will be no sense in this - because this chain does not constitute the essence of creativity, but captures only its external moments, and even those that the author remembered; however, repeating this chain, his followers will receive at the very best exactly the same product. Only not a new masterpiece will appear, but a copy of an existing one. And in this case, there is no question of art - of genuine art.
Does this mean that there are no algorithms in art? Of course, does not mean. Solving any particular problem - within the framework of his global super-task - the artist, like the scientist, uses certain means, techniques that are well-known algorithms. You can take a chance and speculate that the creation of a work of art or a scientific discovery is the result of a new combination of well-known algorithms, multiplied by unexpected changes in the structure of some algorithm.
It is exactly the same in practical psychology. This explains the specifics of the work of a practical psychologist: he must own a significant number of various algorithms (methods, techniques) and be able to combine these algorithms in a wide variety of options, depending on the circumstances of his activity (customer request, client characteristics, the nature and depth of psychological problems, recent political news , wind direction, after all). But this is not enough. If we agree that the work of a practical psychologist is akin to art, then it turns out that creativity is simply his professional duty. Therefore, the psychologist should be ready at any time to forget the familiar algorithm and improvise, juggling techniques, along the way modifying exercises and inventing new ones.
This level of professionalism is achieved only on the basis of experience and the inherent capacity for creativity. In order to masterfully “play” with techniques and exercises, one must very deeply understand their meaning, feel them, that is, in each of them pass a moment of experience. Then each psychological technique will not be a dry algorithm, a scheme of actions, a step-by-step plan, but a living experience, not only for the client, but also for the facilitator. Living the used technique or exercise with the client, the psychologist gains new experience every time. This is not a paradox: psychological techniques and exercises have an amazing property that distinguishes them from other “ways of structuring time”, as E. Byrne would say, the repetition of which brings nothing but boredom. Their content is ready at any moment to shine with a new, previously unseen precious facet, to turn into an unexpected side. You can use the same exercise dozens of times in different groups or with different clients, even without almost modernizing it, and discover new meanings in it - these magnificent pearls for decorating your personality.
The inexhaustibility of the content of psychological techniques and exercises is precisely the platform for launching a creative firework of a practical psychologist. Then a certain insight happens, and a creatively applied technique gives not at all what was planned earlier, but an even more grandiose effect. And the psychologist feels the wings behind him, sees the effectiveness of his work and realizes that he can make a new entry in his diary under the modest heading “methodological finds”.
But for this, it is necessary to thoroughly master the already created algorithms, to realize at least some of the meanings hidden in them, to work them out, to see in practice how they work precisely in your hands.
And then - do it! Use the tool to achieve your goals, remembering the main principle: DO NOT HARM!
Researchers of the most diverse branches of applied science have repeatedly declared the necessity and inevitability of work within the framework of a certain philosophical paradigm. Any practitioner — whether he wants it or does not want to — carries out his activity under the wing of a methodology floating in the sky, above which only the stratosphere of a comprehensive philosophy. But - under what constellations you go, you build your astrology on those. You can puffily affirm the independence of your practical work from the existing philosophical and methodological concepts, but this means, in our opinion, three real possibilities: such a practitioner is either ignorantly ignorant (which makes it possible to question his effectiveness); or he simply does not realize the fundamental principles of his professional activity (which provokes the question of his own level of self-consciousness); or he managed to develop his own worldview and philosophical system (which causes sincere admiration).
Unfortunately, the third option is apparently unlikely.
A practical psychologist must nevertheless be aware of whose concept serves as the basis for him - Freud, Rogers, Bandler with Grinder or Myasishchev. To underestimate the importance of clearly formulated provisions that underlie practical psychological work is a great misconception. Blurring the foundation actually guarantees the instability and destruction of the built building.
We have not the slightest desire to persuade a respected reader to our own faith, but I want to urge: Believe in at least something and know what you believe in!
For any person who seeks help from a psychologist, the main task is to actively obtain the subjective truth, which is important for solving his problems. Meeting with a psychologist is one of the unusual ways to get a personal experience. To gain experience, as a rule, it is not enough passively to receive information. The most important truths presented on a saucer with a blue border will not affect life attitudes and values, will not be able to change personal beliefs and views. Truth - especially truth about oneself - needs to be obtained. Firstly, events must occur, and secondly, you yourself should become a participant in these events. In action, a person experiences experiences and learns something subjectively new.
These considerations are easily illustrated by the example of group psychological training.
One of the postulates of the activity approach in Russian psychology claims the inextricable unity of consciousness and activity, the formation of personality in activity. Sometimes, for some reason, it was concluded that only external, focused activity in everyday life changes a person and helps her develop. It was believed that the "laboratory" work of a psychologist with a group of people could not have a significant impact on personality development. Say, in the best case, group members acquire the skills of effective communication and interaction.
At first glance, indeed, five to ten days of psychological training is too short a time to initiate any sustainable personal changes. However, the experience of the best group trainers shows: training sessions, filled with events and experiences, “compress” the psychological time of the participants, rewarding them with such experience that in ordinary life can be acquired
over the years.
As with actualization in real life, a person in training follows the path of personal discoveries - he makes self-discovery. Such self-discovery gives rise to being able to reveal himself to others, first he must open himself to himself - as he is in his existential essence. Of course, such self-discovery is still superficial and unclear. The image of “I” is a lot of vague, but clarification of self-vision is possible only through television. (The last somewhat pun intended term was born through the use of the concept of “body” proposed by J. L. Moreno. Moreno called the instant mutual understanding of the other person’s personality and his current position, bilateral “feeling” of one another, correlated with reality).
Humanist psychologists call this situation a meeting filled with mutual acceptance of communication. In the interaction of the psychologist and the client, such meetings should take place. The processes of self-discovery and self-disclosure cyclically replace each other, providing the client with a clarification of the "I" and the growth of self-awareness.
1. Abramova G. S. Introduction to practical psychology. - M.: Academy, 1994.
2. Alexandrov A. A. Modern psychotherapy. Lecture course. - St. Petersburg: “Academic Project”, 1997.
3. Bolshakov V. Yu. Psychotraining: Sociodynamics. Exercises. Games. - St. Petersburg: "Socio-psychological center", 1996.
4. Bachkov I.V. Fundamentals of group training technology. Psychotechnics. - M.: Axis-89, 2000.
5. Hessen S. I. Fundamentals of pedagogy. Introduction to applied philosophy. - M .: School-Press, 1995.
6. Godfroix M. What is psychology. In 2 vols. T. 2. - M .: Mir, - 1992.
7. Kraeysky VV Methodology of pedagogical research. - Samara: Publishing house of SamGPI, 1994.
8. Menovshchikov V. Yu. Introduction to psychological counseling. - M .: Sense, 1998.
9. Munsterberg G. Psychology and teacher. - M.: Perfection, 1997.
10. Pedagogy / Ed. V.A. Slastenin, I.F. Isaev and others. - M .: School-Press, 1998.
11. Pryazhnikov N. S. Professional and personal self-determination. - M .: Institute of Practical Psychology, 1996.
12. Psychological Dictionary / Ed. V.P. Zinchenko, B.G. Meshcheryakova. - M .: Pedagogy-Press, 1996.
13. Psychology and Ethics / Ed. B. S. Bratusia. - Samara: Bahrah, 1999.
14. Psychotherapeutic Encyclopedia / Ed. B. D. Karvasara. - St. Petersburg: Peter, 1999.
15. Workbook of a practical psychologist: Technology of effective professional activity. - M .: "Red Square",
16. Rudestam K. Group psychotherapy. Psychocorrectional groups: theory and practice. - M .: Progress, 1993.
17. Slobodchikov V. I., Isaev E. I. Human psychology. Introduction to the psychology of subjectivity. - M .: School-Press, 1995.
18. Eidemiller E. G., Yustitsky VV Family psychotherapy. —L .: Medicine, 1990.
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Practical psychologist as a creator
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