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Applied branches of labor psychology
The psychology of labor includes a number of other industries that study individual types of labor activity.
Management psychology deals with various psychological problems of managerial activity: the study of personal qualities, the style and methods of work of a leader, the study of factors that increase the effectiveness of leadership.
Aviation psychology explores the psychological problems of a person in the relevant field of professional activity, as well as the conditions for successful training in flying.
Space psychology studies the psychological characteristics of human activities in space flight, the problems associated with weightlessness, neuropsychic stress with excessive overload of the body.
Military psychology considers human behavior in conditions of military operations and training in military affairs, the psychological characteristics of military personnel, the interaction of bosses and subordinates.
Another important area of activity in the field of labor psychology is engineering psychology. Specialists in this industry are studying the psychological problems of the interaction of man and technology. Close attention in engineering psychology is paid to the activities of the human operator in automated control systems. Psychologists reveal what features of the control panel cause the operator-operator to be overfatigued, errors when reading instrument readings. Next, proposals and recommendations for rationalization are substantiated.
Engineering psychologists are often called ergonomic psychologists. Ergonomist psychologist is involved in the development of machines, other mechanisms, as well as automatic control systems (ACS) of production processes. He gives recommendations on the optimal arrangement of machine control levers, buttons, dials and toggle switches on the dashboard in the cockpit or on the control panel of the ACS. To do this, he must have a good knowledge of engineering psychology. Using methods of psychology of work, he estimates the noise intensity and illumination acceptable for the effective work of a person in production.
In contrast to domestic psychology, the term “labor psychology and organizational psychology” is more common in the West.
Organizational psychology is developing both as a scientific discipline and as a practical one. Psychologists engaged in this field provide services to clients and administration of organizations. They are involved in the selection of candidates for vacancies, the development of vocational training and retraining programs. Their knowledge turns out to be useful for designing methods for presenting information, when creating labor assessment systems, planning organizational changes, etc.
Why do I need a psychologist at the enterprise? The experience of many foreign firms and a number of domestic enterprises indicates that the psychological service is an important part of the administrative apparatus. A psychologist at a modern enterprise acts as an organizer of working with people on a scientific basis (Erastov, 1975, p. 36).
The psychology of trade studies the psychological problems of the interaction of the seller and the buyer, customer service, the psychology of advertising, supply and demand.
The psychologist of the trading company has to solve the following problems:
1) professional selection, placement, assistance in the adaptation, training and professional development of employees, assessment of business and personal qualities;
2) study and formation of the psychological climate, analysis of conflict situations and development of recommendations for their resolution;
3) improving the professional psychological culture of managers and workers, training in communication skills, knowledge of the psychology of trade;
4) analysis and diagnosis of social problems of the enterprise, the forecast of psychological and social consequences of organizational innovations;
5) psychological support of advertising.
Since the late 1960s, social problems have again become topical for labor psychology and organizational psychology in many countries:
- What is the place of a specialist in labor psychology and organizational psychology in society,
- what can be his contribution to solving social problems,
- how is it related to the managerial personnel and ordinary personnel of the enterprise?
Discussions on these issues took place both at universities and in practice, conducted not only by professional, but also by beginning psychologists.
It is shown that the work of psychologists is stimulated by society and is involved in solving important social problems.
At the same time, the interaction of various specialists involved in labor problems is expanding. On the one hand, psychologists are increasingly interested in knowledge of sociology and industrial engineering. On the other hand, there has been an increase in interest in labor psychology and organizational psychology by sociologists and engineers. Some studies show that psychologists increasingly come to the conclusion that their functions could be performed by other professional non-psychologists (for example, sociologists) (Leonova, Chernysheva, 1995, p.16).
In our country, similar difficulties associated with the status of specialists in labor psychology began to arise in the early 1990s. Economic problems led to the fact that many psychological services of large enterprises were reduced or closed. Currently, the need for specialists of this kind may arise in enterprises of various types, in state, joint-stock or private firms. However, the demand for practical labor psychology should be formed by the psychologists themselves, helping managers to realize the real value of psychology. As practice shows, the most interesting are usually socio-psychological problems.
In general, there are both optimistic and pessimistic views on the future of labor psychology and organizational psychology.
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Applied branches of labor psychology
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