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The problem of professional destruction in the development of a psychologist

Any activity, including professional, leaves its mark on a person. Work can contribute to personal development, but can also have negative consequences for the individual. Probably, it is impossible to find professional activities that would not have such negative consequences. The problem is the balance - the ratio of positive and negative changes in the personality of the employee. Those professions, or that particular job, where the balance is not in favor of positive changes, and cause the so-called professional destruction. Professional destruction is manifested in a decrease in labor efficiency, in the deterioration of relationships with others, in the deterioration of health and, most importantly, in the formation of negative personal qualities and even in the breakdown of the holistic personality of the employee.

Considering professional destruction in general terms, E.F. Seer notes: "... the many years of carrying out the same professional activity leads to the appearance of professional fatigue, the depletion of the repertoire of ways to carry out activities, the loss of professional skills and ability to work ... the secondary stage of professionalization in many types of professions such as" man - technology "," man - nature ", gives way to deprofessionalization ... at the stage of professionalization, the development of professional destruction takes place. Professional destruction is gradually accumulated Xia change the existing structure of the activities and personality, a negative impact on labor productivity and interaction with other participants in this process, as well as on the development of the personality "(Zeer, 1997, S. 149).

A. K. Markova identified the following trends in the development of professional destruction (Markova, 1996. - P. 150-151):

• lag, slowdown in professional development in comparison with age and social norms;

• lack of professional activity (the employee is “stuck” in his development);

• disintegration of professional development, disintegration of professional consciousness and, as a result, unrealistic goals, false meanings of work, professional conflicts;

• low professional mobility, inability to adapt to new working conditions and maladaptation;

• the inconsistency of individual links in professional development, when one sphere seems to run ahead and the other lags behind (for example, there is motivation for professional work, but the lack of a holistic professional consciousness prevents it);

• curtailing previously available professional data, reducing professional abilities, weakening professional thinking;

• distortion of professional development, the appearance of previously absent negative qualities, deviations from social and individual norms of professional development that change the profile of a person;

• the appearance of personality deformations (for example, emotional exhaustion and burnout, as well as a defective professional position - especially in professions with pronounced power and fame);

• termination of professional development due to occupational diseases or disability.

The main conceptual provisions important for the analysis of the development of professional destruction (See, 1997. S. 152-153):

1. Professional development is both gain and loss (improvement and destruction).

2. Professional destruction in its most general form is: a violation of already learned modes of activity; but these are also changes associated with the transition to the subsequent stages of professional development; and changes associated with age-related changes, physical and nervous exhaustion.

3. Overcoming professional destruction is accompanied by mental tension, psychological discomfort, and sometimes crisis phenomena (without internal effort and suffering personal and professional growth does not happen).

4. Destruction caused by many years of performing the same professional activity, generate professionally undesirable qualities, change the professional behavior of a person — these are “professional deformations”: this is like a disease that could not be detected in time and which turned out to be neglected; the worst thing is that the person himself imperceptibly resigned to this destruction.

5. Any professional activity is already at the development stage, and later on when it is being performed, it deforms a person ... many qualities of a person remain unclaimed ... With the professionalization, the success of an activity begins to be determined by an ensemble of professionally important qualities that have been “exploited” for years. Some of them are gradually transformed into professionally undesirable qualities; at the same time, professional accentuations are developing gradually - overly expressed qualities and their combinations that adversely affect the activities and behavior of the specialist.

6. Long-term implementation of professional activity cannot be constantly accompanied by its improvement ... Inevitable, albeit temporary, periods of stabilization. In the initial stages of professionalization, these periods are short-lived. In the subsequent stages of individual specialists, the stabilization period can last quite a long time. In these cases, it is appropriate to talk about the onset of professional stagnation of the individual.

7. Sensitive periods of the formation of professional deformations are crises of the professional formation of an individual. The unproductive way out of the crisis distorts the professional orientation, contributes to the emergence of a negative professional position, and reduces professional activity.

Levels of professional destruction (see Seer, 1997. S. 158-159):

1. General professional destruction typical for workers in this profession. For example: for doctors - the syndrome of "compassionate fatigue" (emotional indifference to the suffering of patients); for law enforcement officials - “asocial perception” syndrome (when everyone is perceived as a potential offender); for managers - the “permissiveness” syndrome (violation of professional and ethical standards, the desire to manipulate subordinates).

2. Special professional destruction arising in the process of specialization. For example, in legal and human rights professions: the investigator has legal suspicion; the operative has actual aggressiveness; the lawyer has professional resourcefulness, the prosecutor has indictment. In the medical professions: therapists have a desire to make “threatening diagnoses; the surgeons have cynicism; the nurses have callousness and indifference.

3. Professional-typological destruction, due to the imposition of individual psychological characteristics of the individual on the psychological structure of professional activity.
As a result, professionally and personally determined complexes are formed: 1) deformations of the personality's professional orientation (distortion of motives for activity, restructuring of value orientations, pessimism, skepticism about innovations); 2) deformations developing on the basis of any abilities: organizational, communicative, intellectual, etc. (superiority complex, hypertrophied level of claims, narcissism ...); 3) deformations caused by character traits (role expansion, ambition, “official intervention”, dominance, indifference ...). All this can manifest itself in a variety of professions.

4. Individual deformations caused by the characteristics of workers of various professions, when certain professionally important qualities, as well as undesirable qualities, develop excessively, which leads to the emergence of super-qualities or accentuations. For example: over-responsibility, super-honesty, hyperactivity, labor fanaticism, professional enthusiasm, obsessive pedantry, etc. "These deformations could be called professional cretinism," writes E.F. Seer (Ibid., P. 159).

Examples of professional destruction of a teacher (See, 1997. S. 159-169). Note that in psychological literature there are almost no examples of such destructions of a psychologist, but since the activities of a teacher and a psychologist-practitioner are largely similar, the examples of professional destructions given below can be instructive in many ways for many areas of psychological practice:

1. Pedagogical aggression. Possible reasons: individual characteristics, psychological defense-projection, frustration intolerance, i.e. intolerance caused by any minor deviation from the rules of conduct.

2. Authoritarianism. Possible reasons: protection-rationalization, excessive self-esteem, authority, schematization of types of students.

3. Demonstration. Reasons: protection-identification, high self-esteem of the "image-I", egocentrism.

4. Didacticity. Reasons: stereotypes of thinking, speech patterns, professional accentuation.

5. Dogmatism is pedagogical. Reasons: stereotypes of thinking, age-related intellectual inertia.

6. Dominance. Reasons: incongruence of empathy, i.e. inadequacy, inconsistency of the situation, inability to empathize, intolerance to students' shortcomings; accentuation of character.

7. Pedagogical indifference. Reasons: protection-alienation, "emotional combustion" syndrome, generalization of personal negative pedagogical experience.

8. Conservatism is pedagogical. Reasons: protection-rationalization, stereotypes of activity, social barriers, chronic overload of pedagogical activity.

9. Role expansionism. Reasons: stereotypes of behavior, total immersion in pedagogical activity, selfless professional work, rigidity.

10. Social hypocrisy. Reasons: protection-projection, stereotyping of moral behavior, age-related idealization of life experience, social projections, i.e. bad experience adapting to the socio-professional situation. This destruction is especially noticeable among history teachers, who are compelled, in order not to let down students who have to pass the corresponding exams, to present the material in accordance with the new (regular) conjuncture-political “modes”. It is noteworthy that some former senior officials of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation publicly stated that "most of all for their many years of work in the Ministry of Education, they were proud that they changed the content of the course" History of Russia ", that is," adapted "the course to the ideals of" democracy " ...

11. Behavioral transfer. Reasons: protection-projection, empathic tendency to join, i.e. manifestation of reactions characteristic of the pupils. For example, the use of expressions and behaviors that some students exhibit, which often makes such a teacher unnatural, even in the eyes of these students.

Naturally, many of the listed examples of professional destruction of teachers are also characteristic of psychologists. But psychologists have one important feature in the formation of negative qualities. At its core, psychology is focused on the development of a genuine subject of life, on the formation of a holistic independent and responsible person. But many psychologists are often limited only to the formation of individual properties, qualities and characteristics from which the personality supposedly develops (although the essence of the personality lies in its integrity, in orientation to the search for the main meaning of their life).

As a result, such fragmentation gives rise to situations when the psychologist, firstly, tries to justify his professional primitivism (expressed in the conscious withdrawal from more complex professional problems and the formation of a fragmented person, but not an integral personality) and, secondly, inevitably turns himself yourself into a fragmented personality. An important feature of such a fragmented personality is manifested in the fact that she is deprived of the main idea (meaning, value) of her life and does not even try to find it for herself - she is already “good”.

The profession of psychologist provides individuals with excellent opportunities for creative exertion, and for solving truly significant personal and social problems, and for the full self-development and self-realization of a psychologist. The only problem is to see these opportunities and take advantage of them, without bringing the idea of ​​creative tension in work (“torment of creativity”) to absurdity and sad ridicule

E.F. Seer also denotes possible ways of professional rehabilitation, allowing to some extent reduce the negative consequences of such destruction (Seer, 1997. S. 168-169):

• increasing socio-psychological competence and autocompetence;

• diagnosis of professional deformities and the development of individual strategies to overcome them;

• passing trainings of personal and professional growth. At the same time, it is advisable for specific employees to take serious and in-depth trainings not in real work collectives, but in other places;

• reflection of professional biography and development of alternative scenarios for further personal and professional growth;

• prevention of professional maladjustment of a novice specialist;

• mastery of techniques, methods of self-regulation of the emotional-volitional sphere and self-correction of professional deformations;

• advanced training and the transition to a new qualification category or position (increasing the sense of responsibility and novelty of work).
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The problem of professional destruction in the development of a psychologist

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