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Professional competence of a psychologist

The most important condition for the successful professional activity of a psychologist is competence. In the dictionary of foreign languages, the concept of "competency" is disclosed as having competence - the terms of reference of any institution, person or circle of persons, issues subject to someone else's jurisdiction. Competent (French) - competent, competent. Competens (Latin) - appropriate, capable. Competere - to demand, comply, be fit. Competence (English) - ability (competency).

The concept of "competence" in relation to the characterization of the level of professional training is used relatively recently. V. I. Dahl understands competency as a full-fledged person and uses it mainly in the legal sphere: “A competent judge who can and has the right to judge about whom, about whom or anyone ... a full-fledged judge.” Competence and competence make up a single concept for V. I. Dahl.

In the modern sense, competence is considered in the following aspects:

• with competence;

• possession of knowledge to judge something.

The content of the concept of “competent” is also expressed in 2 aspects:

• competent, competent;

• knowledgeable, knowledgeable in a certain area.

It follows that competence and competency are complementary and mutually-related concepts. A competent person who does not have the powers (competence) will not be able to fully and socially significant aspects to realize it. On this basis, the specialist develops the prerequisites for the emergence of role conflict, which is very damaging to the person himself and creates conflict situations in the group and team. The activity of a competent person with competence (authority) is even more antisocial.

V. S. Bezrukova understands competence as “possession of knowledge and skills that make it possible to express professionally competent judgments, assessments, opinions.”

E.F. Eser and O.N. Shakhmatova under professional competence mean a combination of professional knowledge and skills, as well as ways to carry out professional activities.

Competence is the level of personality skills, reflecting the degree of compliance with a particular competency and allowing you to act constructively in changing social conditions.

In a consumer society, the question of competency arises quite often. People want a professionally assembled and working car. They want their TV sets to be repaired by competent professionals. The question of competence never arises so sharply as in the case when it comes to physical, emotional, legal or spiritual well-being. The concept of "competency" is very extensible, because it does not determine the exact degree of skill. This term can be used to mean the minimum, acceptable, optimal or highest level of skill.

In psychologists, competence is usually considered in terms of providing professional services, usually of a clinical nature. The minimum levels of competency are directly addressed by the Standards for Psychological Suppliers. services ”(Standards for providers of psychological services), professional standards for oversight commissions (PSRC) and quality assurance oversight bodies owned by a third-party paying service.

The definition of professional competence is closely related to the question of what constitutes psychology as a profession. Persons of a particular profession should serve the society and have value for it, have a large amount of knowledge and, as a rule, enjoy the exclusive rights granted to them by the society. Thus, society usually recognizes the right of the profession to control trade with its skills and suggests that professional organizations should monitor the activities of their members. A profession as an occupation, however, consists in possessing specific knowledge and certain skills. These skills can be assessed directly using special criteria to determine the degree of adequacy of operations. To assess based on the execution of operations, it is necessary to have proof that the specialist has the necessary number of skills.

According to V. N. Karandashev, the professional competence of a psychologist includes:

• professional knowledge,

• professional skills,

• professional skills;

• abilities.

Professional competence is also characterized by a range of professional opportunities, perfect mastery of the tools, techniques and technologies of professional activity. It manifests itself in the creative nature of his activities, in the active search for innovative approaches and innovative technologies, personal initiative and professional sociability.

Professional knowledge covers not only knowledge of psychology, but also a certain body of knowledge in various fields of science. The psychologist must be a versatile specialist. Therefore, his professional erudition includes not only knowledge in the field of psychology, but also a certain body of knowledge in the field of philosophy, history, cultural studies, pedagogy, economics, sociology, political science, law, philology, physical education, mathematics and computer science, in the field of modern concepts natural sciences.

Professional skills determine the success of a psychologist’s practical activity, his ability to apply psychological knowledge to fulfill his duties: specific actions, techniques, psychological “techniques”. Professional skills predetermine the success of a practical psychologist, his ability to apply psychological knowledge in practice.

Professional skills are solidified, easily and confidently performed professional actions that allow the psychologist to effectively perform work.
Professional skills are professional actions that allow the psychologist to easily and confidently perform work. The more experience, the more professional skills a specialist acquires.

Consider the basic requirements for the preparedness of a psychologist in professional disciplines. In the field of psychology, a specialist should:

1) understand the goals, methodology and methods of professional activity of a psychologist;

2) own tools, methods of organizing and conducting psychological research;

3) understand the specifics of the subject of psychology, its connection with other disciplines; know the main branches of psychology and the possibilities of applying psychological knowledge in various fields of life;

4) know the history of development and modern problems of psychological science;

5) know the laws of evolution of the psyche of animals, the similarities and qualitative differences in the psyche of animals and humans; phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human psyche;

6) understand the brain mechanisms of mental processes and conditions;

7) to know the nature of human activity, the functions of the psyche in human life;

8) know the laws of the formation and functioning of its motivational sphere;

9) know the psychological laws of cognitive processes (sensations, perceptions, memory, imagination, thinking, speech);

10) know the mechanisms of attention, emotional phenomena, the processes of volitional regulation;

11) have a concept of personality and individuality, personality structure and the driving forces of its development;

12) know the psychological laws of communication and interaction of people in groups, intergroup relations;

13) know the laws of mental development of a person at each age level;

14) know the basic laws of educational psychology;

15) know the criteria of the norm and pathology of mental processes, conditions, human activities, ways and means of compensation and restoration of the norm;

16) have an idea of ​​the psychological problems of labor activity of a person;

17) know the main areas and types of psychologist;

18) know the basics of psychodiagnostics and psychological counseling;

19) know the basics of psychotherapy, correctional and developmental work of a psychologist;

20) master the methods of psychological education and teaching psychology.

In addition, within the framework of the corresponding specialization, the psychologist must possess a number of in-depth knowledge and practical skills. The main areas of specialization include: 1) general psychology, 2) personality psychology, 3) social psychology, 4) political psychology, 5) management psychology, 6) labor psychology and organizational psychology, 7) clinical psychology, 8) psychophysiology, 9) special psychology, 10) developmental psychology and developmental psychology, I) educational psychology, 12) psychological counseling, 13) psychology of social work, 14) legal psychology, 15) sports psychology.

These requirements are at least necessary for the professional work of a psychologist. A graduate of a higher education institution specializing in psychology must satisfy these requirements. In addition, for successful work, the psychologist must constantly improve his professional competence, participate in continuing education courses, and specialized seminars on certain problems of psychology. Self-analysis of work experience and self-improvement of professional skills help the psychologist to achieve higher results in their activities.

However, some authors believe that the final criterion in assessing the competence of professionals is the client. They believe that personal competence can be assessed through assignments in role-playing games or recording therapy sessions, which, for example, can be assessed by supervisors. They indicate that competence can be determined by evaluating actions in therapeutic work. Competency assessment should be determined by the measure of benefits brought by the professional to the consumer.

Gerald Kucher analyzes the concept of competence and expresses doubts that modern methods of certification of qualifications of psychologists are able to distinguish between the minimum and highest levels of competence. He notes that competence may vary depending on the professional service offered, and then the idea is not unfounded that it might be better to consider competence as a condition, and not as a characteristic feature.

Daniel B. Hogan, Writing on the Definition of Psychol. the practice and charter of psychotherapists, notes that it is difficult to predict competence if the therapeutic process cannot be adequately assessed. He believes that while we cannot establish a clear link between certification of qualifications and the success of treatment, it is difficult to determine competence.

A distinction must be made between entry-level competence and further competency. Competent professional practice implies a good knowledge of the specialist about the achievements in his field. Many laws on licensing psychologists require participation in continuing education programs, although it is difficult to assess whether this is a guarantee for a specialist to learn new knowledge. It is sometimes believed that the time will soon come when specialists will periodically undergo licensing. Probably, this will require the development of methods for assessing basic knowledge, the degree of maintenance of skills, as well as the level of assimilation of new achievements in their field. Attention to the problem of competence has led to healthy doubts about modern certification and licensing procedures and an understanding of the need to study them.
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Professional competence of a psychologist

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