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Is psychology a profession? The answer to this question can be given by the consideration of psychological activity from the point of view of the above five aspects.
1. Is there any special area of activity for a psychologist (psychological activity) that distinguishes its representatives from other professions?
2. Is psychological activity socially necessary, socially recognized and legally enshrined in certain regulatory documents?
3. Is there a specific system of preparation for psychological activity?
4. Are there regulatory requirements for the professional qualifications and experience of a specialist psychologist?
5. Is there a community of people involved in psychological activities?
The more grounds for positive answers to these questions, the more we can talk about the existence of the profession of a psychologist.
The listed aspects of the psychological profession will be discussed in this tutorial.
The profession "psychologist" appeared in the XX century. The process of forming the profession of a psychologist unequally proceeded in different countries and in different spheres of social life. The most developed profession as a psychologist was in the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Russia. Academic psychology associated with scientific and pedagogical activities at universities was formed earlier and gained a fairly strong status in public opinion.
Over the course of the 20th century, a social order for psychological activity was gradually formed in society, it became socially recognized and, as a result, received a regulatory framework (legal documents appeared that regulated the status, content and forms of work of a professional psychologist). A system of professional education and training of psychologists was gradually formed, professional societies of psychologists were created, requirements for professional qualifications and experience of psychologists were formulated.
Currently, the most recognized activities of practical psychologists in the field of pedagogical, medical, social, consulting psychology. Other areas of practical psychology are actively developing: economic, legal, sports, military.
In order for any profession to appear, a social order must arise on it, that is, the conscious need of society for the corresponding type of professional activity. It is important for society as a whole, specific people and administrative bodies to realize the need for specialists of a certain profile. The profession of a psychologist becomes necessary only when a need arises in his knowledge.
Most often, people turn to psychologists when they are faced with difficult life situations. While everything is in order, the need for the help of a psychologist usually does not arise. People themselves cope with everyday problems. Therefore, in order for a need for psychological services to appear, people must be aware of it.
True, it is not always obvious enough: either the psychologist helps people realize their needs, or he shapes these needs. The service offered creates demand for it. Isn’t something analogous to advertising other goods and services? For example, in advertising they form a negative aesthetic attitude towards dandruff, and then offer a means to get rid of it. In psychology, a similar effect is possible when during the consultation the psychologist confirms that a person has some problems that he did not know about and did not notice, and then offers personal growth training as a means of getting rid of them.
A social order for the profession of a psychologist is now being formed primarily in journalistic and popular science literature that analyzes the problems of modern man.
Representatives of other professions also speak about the need for psychological knowledge: teachers, doctors, lawyers, businessmen, politicians. They need this knowledge to solve one of the main tasks of these professions - a targeted impact on a person.
Modern psychology is a whole system of sciences and areas of practical psychological activity. It can be divided into two main areas: scientific and practical psychology. They differ significantly in the main goals of professional activity.
The main goal of scientific psychology is to understand the psychology of people by scientific methods. Scientists seek, on the basis of individual observations, facts, to come to an understanding of general laws. The right direction of the movement of scientific research is from private to general.
The main goal of practical psychology is to provide psychological assistance to specific people or groups of people. Based on the well-known general psychological laws, practitioners strive to understand the individuality of a particular person or group. This understanding provides the key to psychological assistance. Practical psychology in its activity moves from the general to the particular.
At the same time, they should not be opposed to each other. These are two areas of psychological work that are closely related to each other. Nevertheless, these are two different types of psychologist’s activities that impose different requirements on the professional training of a specialist (In a sense, the relations of scientific and practical psychology are similar to the relations of human physiology and medicine. The main goal of physiology is to study the human body. The main purpose of medicine is to help a person Human physiology is of practical importance. Medicine, generalizing its knowledge, builds medical science. Physiology uses medical data. In medicine, physiological data Sgiach Research).
In accordance with the main kind of psychological activity, there are really three types of psychological profession:
1) a psychologist-scientist whose main activity is scientific research aimed at finding new psychological knowledge (explanation, proof and prediction of psychological phenomena, the study of psychological laws);
2) a practicing psychologist whose main activity is the application of psychological knowledge to solve practical problems (psychological diagnosis and counseling, correctional and developmental work, psychological prevention);
3) a psychology teacher whose main activity is psychological education and training in psychological knowledge (lectures, seminars, workshops, guidance of psychological self-education of people). Each of them has specific requirements for professional training and specialist abilities. A good scientist may not necessarily be a good practitioner or teacher, a good practitioner can be a good scientist or teacher at the same time, and a good teacher can be a good scientist or practitioner at the same time. Of course, a combination of abilities for two or three types of activity with one psychologist is quite possible. However, these will be different abilities. For a psychologist-scientist, the ability to search for new knowledge and generalize it is especially important. For a psychologist-practitioner - the ability to apply psychological knowledge in practice. For the teacher of psychology - the ability to systematize and transfer knowledge to other people.
More details about the specifics of these types of professional psychological activities will be discussed in subsequent chapters.
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- Answers to offset. Introduction to the profession of psychologist, 2012
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- Stasenko V.G .. “Profession psychologist in the modern world”, 2010
Instead of introducing. General idea of the profession "Psychologist". Description of the profession. Where are psychologists in demand today? The area of basic knowledge of a psychologist. Basic professionally important personality traits of a psychologist. Additional features of the profession, as well as the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist and psychotherapist. Why do they enter the specialty "Psychology"? What is the psychologist paid for?
- General idea of the profession “psychologist”
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- Karandashev VN. Psychology: Introduction to the profession., 2000
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- The concept of "profession psychologist"
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- I.V. Vachkov, I. B. Grinshpun, N. S. Pryazhnikov. Introduction to the profession of "psychologist", 2004
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- Psychology as a profession
- "Psychology as a profession"
- GENERAL REPRESENTATION OF THE PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
GENERAL REPRESENTATION OF THE PROFESSION
- Additional features of the profession, as well as the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist and psychotherapist
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