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Psychological features of student age
Student age (youth) is the final stage of socialization. The activity and role structure of the individual at this stage are already acquiring a number of new, adult qualities. The main social task of this age is the choice of a profession. The choice of profession and type of educational institution inevitably differentiates the life paths of girls and boys, with all the ensuing socio-psychological consequences. The range of socio-political roles and related interests and responsibilities is expanding.
The period of training (the stage of an adherent in the terminology of E. A. Klimov) does not have fixed age limits and can begin both in adolescence and in the period of early or late youth. Students of vocational schools, secondary and higher specialized educational institutions are related by a commitment to the profession in the form of appropriate educational or self-educational activities, orientation to a specific professional community and familiarization with it based on the assimilation of specific professional norms and requirements, professional content of the chosen field of work. However, at the previous age stages, the formation of a professional orientation was the product of diverse, but not professional types of activity. Now it is included in vocational training and defines all other types of human activities. Prior to graduation, the formation of a professional orientation is one of the aspects of the development of personality and individuality, and at the student age, a professional orientation is a central, pivotal aspect of mental development
Studies by V. I. Stepansky show that one of the important psychological conditions that fully reveals the qualities of students that are inherent in a professional is the inclusion of boys and girls in a professional environment . The transition of a person to vocational training, vocational training opens a qualitatively new stage in the formation of his professional orientation on the basis of the transformation of personality and individuality.
Individuality is considered in psychology as an integral form of the spiritual and spiritual being of a person as a unique and distinctive personality, realizing itself in creative activity . “A person as an individual,” V. I. Slobodchikov notes, “is revealed in an original author's“ reading ”of social norms of life, in the development of one’s own, purely individual (unique and inimitable) way of life, one’s world outlook, one’s own (“ non-general ”) person, following the voice of one’s own conscience ”[13, p. 341]. The work of a psychologist, as noted above, is very specific in its subject matter to the personality of another person. Its specificity lies in the fact that the psychologist himself must act as an individual, as a person who has every right to it. Thus, the individualization of the student’s mental life at the stage of study at the university is a constant process of declassifying his own self, aimed at understanding the true, internal “I” of a person in the light of higher meanings and higher values. Accordingly, in order for the values to become the property of the student’s soul, it is necessary to create conditions for introducing him to the values of the professional sphere, filling educational and professional activities with various events, including meaning systems that can serve as landmarks for students’s current goals, and the basis for setting and implementing cognitive, practical and personal tasks.
Introduction to the professional sphere is considered as a necessary basis for life, which streamlines the student’s life, makes him meaningful. When creating the conditions for modeling professional situations, performing professional or adequate social activities, an understanding of the essence of the profession takes place [66; 26; 47], the image of the profession is being formed , professional self-awareness and professionally important personality traits are being formed [53; eleven; 19], professional fitness [70; 10]. There are psychological characteristics close to those of a professional .
Emotional passion for the profession is the main mechanism of professionalization at the initial stage of study at the university. A positive attitude to the profession will consist in the fact that in an emotionally attractive professional activity a number of needs of the subject can be realized, social, economic, personal, which contribute to the formation of the motivated activity, as a result of which the professional orientation will be more stable.
The emotional component of a professional orientation will be sustainable, provided that students observe the activities of professionals who are represented by university teachers at the training stage. Professional activity must meet a number of requirements: it must be accessible for observation, have a pronounced emotional character, to affect the student’s feelings and become socially significant, attractive, prestigious for him. It is precisely at the student age that the positive emotions arising when professionalization is included in the environment acquire special significance for students to pursue their educational and professional and further professional activities, for the maximum social return of specialists with higher education .
In this age period, the professional orientation acts as a neoplasm and is formed in a special activity not inherent to students earlier . For the first time, educational-professional or labor activity, or both together, become the leading type of activity, in the framework of which self-awareness in the profession is formed (cognitive component), which allows the student to move to a new social level aimed at developing himself in the profession [32 ].
Among the important transformations of the motivational-need component, such a tendency as increasing the role of internal motivation stands out, that is, the motivation for self-realization intensifies and a personal attitude to the profession is formed. There is an awareness of the difficulties associated not only with studying at the university, but also with the specifics of the implementation of professional functions in the future. As knowledge is acquired, experience is formed in the profession, the external goals of training are internalized and more and more coincide with personal goals. This transformation of the motivational sphere gives the future professional autonomy in the field of professional growth, independence from related factors in professional development and the ability to objectively assess the conditions of his own activity, his own success in its development. With the development of the motivational-need component, the professional orientation begins to be more stable. Deep changes of significant semantic formations occur, causing penetration into professional problems . Gradually, the attitude towards the profession begins to take shape under the influence of conditions arising from the labor activity itself, its specificity, and personal goals and values are included in the professional context.
The hierarchy of motivations is changing, and a solution is being made to the question of establishing the correlation of social significance and the personal meaning of labor. There is a relationship between personal and social motivations for work, which causes the student to strive to consider professional activity as a means of self-realization. The period of professional training in a university is associated with a growing tendency towards individualization in all components of a professional orientation, since a professional-psychological type is established on the basis of the development of self-awareness and qualities that are important for a professional. The result of the development of a professional orientation is the comprehension of one's future profession and oneself in it, the emergence of a certain attitude to one's work, as well as the readiness for active independent activity in the professional sphere and the desire for improvement in it. Professional orientation has a leading role in the formation of professionalism.
A theoretical analysis of the literature allowed us to highlight the features of the formation of the professional orientation of students at various stages of study at a university. At the initial stage of university education, emotional - sensory experiences and relationships are significant components of such mental phenomena as the images of the “profession” and “I-professional”. By the image of the profession, we understand the person's ideas about the chosen profession and his attitude to it. “Image of I-professional” knowledge of my professional and functional state at the moment, my place in the system of interpersonal relations, my abilities and limitations. The emotional component of orientation fills these images with sensual content, and the cognitive and behavioral components rational. The images of the profession and I-professional are one of the features of the formation of a professional orientation, orienting the subject of professionalization in the space of professional self-determination.
In the process of further training, the professional orientation of the personality is filled with rational content, the cognitive structures of the psyche are responsible for the implementation of personal targeted professional development programs. The goals of educational and professional activity are conscious and consciously accepted as desired images of the profession and self-professional, acting as intermediate or final results of professionalization. The goals of professional and educational activities are varied and may be intermediate and final, easily attainable and difficult to achieve, but conscious goals are usually expressed as a conceptual project of the future in the professional sphere of the individual. The ability of the subject of professionalization to goal-setting is a feature of the formation of a professional orientation at the level of perspective-target and motivational-need components.
Thus, at the final stage of students' education, there is a tendency to form semantic formations related to professional activity and what is associated with it. According to the degree of influence on the stability of the subjective attitude to the profession, the following semantic formations are distinguished: personal meaning, semantic attitude, personal value.
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Psychological features of student age
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