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“Psychological analysis of the professional activity of the educational psychologist as an objective basis for readiness formation”
In chapter II, based on the basic principle of the primacy of the model of activity in professional development, a psychological analysis of the practical psychology of education as a sphere of professional labor is carried out. The logic and content of this chapter was determined by the system-activity approach to the study of professional activity based on the leading ideas of the analysis of the psychological structure of activity (E.M. Ivanova, E.A. Klimov, V.D. Shadrikov, etc.).
The characteristic of the object side of the professional activity of the educational psychologist required an analysis of the social situation of the development of the profession, as well as a combination of subject attributes and the operational and technological structure of this activity. The analysis of the social situation in the development of domestic practical psychology of education revealed the discrete nature of its development in the 20th century and showed that at the present stage it is turning into an integral independent branch of psychological and pedagogical theory and practice. The appearance of a psychologist at school (as it was already in the 20-30s of the 20th century) created the situation of the formation in modern education of a new type of professional (“teacher-psychologist”) with a fundamentally different subject, content and means of activity. A logical consequence of this was intensive occupational studies of the psychologist in post-Soviet Russia.
In the 80-90s of the twentieth century, the work of a psychologist was the subject of research in the works of G.S. Abramova, N.A. Aminova and M.V. Molokanova, A.A. Bodaleva, A.F. Bondarenko, F.E. Vasilyuk, E.A. Klimova, N.V. Kuzmina and A.A. Reana, A.K. Markova, V.M. Rozina, E.S. Romanova and others. Understanding the specifics of the activity of educational psychologists in the same period was reflected in the works of M.R. Bityanova, Yu.Z. Gil-Bukh, K.M. Gurevich, L.A. Golovey and N.A. Grishchenko, A.A. Derkach, I.V. Dubrovina, Yu.M. Zabrodina, A.V. Krasilo and A.P. Novgorodtseva, R.V. Ovcharova, AM Prikho-jean, E.I. Rogova, I.S. Yakimanskaya and others
In the current decade, the activity of a practical psychologist in various contexts was studied by T.M. Buyakas, I.V. Vachkov, I.B. Grinshpun and N.S. Pryazhnikov, A.I. Dontsov, V.N. Karandashev, A.G. Leaders, O.N. Homeland and P.N. Prudkov, L.B. Schneider and other researchers. The work of A.K. is devoted to elucidating the characteristics of the activity of the educational psychologist. Bolotova, I.V. Dubrovina, N.I. Isaeva, T.D. Martsinkovskaya, V.E. Pakhalyana, V.V. Rubtsova, N.V. Samoukina, M.A. Stepanova, L.M. Friedman and many other authors.
The analysis of occupational studies undertaken by the educational psychologist undertaken in the work made it possible to give a system-integral description of the object attributes of this work in comparison with related activities - pedagogical and practical-psychological. It is shown that the work of an educational psychologist is of a specific nature with a number of distinctive features caused by the characteristics of the professional position of the specialist and client, especially the content, forms and results of activities. The activity of the educational psychologist is characterized as: - a complexly organized multifunctional activity, consisting of several interrelated species that differ in form, methods of implementation, and functional orientation; - transformative communicative activity of a goal-oriented individual value character, aimed at updating the cultural and mental resource of the personality of a participant in the pedagogical process; - “meta-activity”, including not only the activities of the psychologist and the child, but also the management of the activities of educators and parents educating him; - creative activity with a predominance of tasks that do not have ready-made solutions, with actions that are difficult to exercise and that are almost not automated; - activities that require the most detailed orientation in the laws of the functioning of the psyche at all levels of the pedagogical system.
The psychological analysis of the subjective side of the professional activity of the educational psychologist is to study his personal, motivational, cognitive, operator-regulatory properties. The problem of personal characteristics of a psychologist has been actively developed in the last two decades in such areas as: professionally important qualities of a psychologist that ensure the success of his scientific and practical activities (G.S. Abramova, N.A. Aminov and M.V. Molokanov, L.V. . Temnova and others); personal determinants of the effectiveness of the psychologist in certain areas and areas (A.A. Derkach, A.K. Markova, V.E. Pakhalyan, etc.); the formation and development of the personality and PVC of a psychologist (I.F. Bashirov, G.M. Belokrylova, T.A. Kazantseva, N.I. Nikolskaya, E.V. Shatilova and others). A review of the works showed that the vast majority of researchers recognize that the effectiveness of this complex multifunctional activity is largely determined by the qualities of the subject performing it, however, a unified approach to their selection is still lacking. The ideas developed by modern research on the general professional properties and personal qualities of a psychologist are structured in the work based on the level system of the educational psychologist as an individual, person and subject of activity.
The results of a psychological analysis of the professional activities of the educational psychologist formed the basis for describing the model of his activity (laborogram) and personality (psychogram). The projection of the obtained psychologist's labor profession onto the readiness structure made it possible to solve the most important task of identifying the criteria for the educational psychologist to be ready for professional activity.
Taking into account traditional and modern approaches to characterizing the levels of professional development of the subject through the indication of professionally important qualities and competencies, allowed us to distinguish two types of readiness criteria: integral and specific.
Integral criteria are represented by two groups:
1. Criteria of readiness of the applicant for educational and professional activities in the psychological and pedagogical direction - internal conscious motives for choosing a psychologist's profession, social intelligence, empathy, the quality of general knowledge and skills of productive educational and cognitive activity;
2. The criteria for the graduate's readiness for the professional activities of an educational psychologist are professional orientation, internality and professional preparedness.
The specific criteria of readiness in accordance with the modern approach to the description of the results of vocational education are competencies as a combination of knowledge, skills and qualities that provide the ability to solve professional problems (E.F. Seer, A.V. Khutorsky). The paper describes ten types of key competencies of the educational psychologist, differentiated into three groups (according to I.A. Zimnaya):
1. Competencies of the psychologist of education as a person and a subject of life: I. competences of a healthy lifestyle, II. competences of value-semantic orientation in the world, III. Competency Integration, IV. competencies of citizenship; V. competencies of self-improvement, self-development;
2. Competencies related to the social interaction of the educational psychologist and the social sphere: VI. competences of social interaction, VII. communication competencies;
3. Competencies related to the activities of the educational psychologist: VIII. cognitive competences, IX. competencies of professional activity (a. general professional and b. special, corresponding to the psychological structure of activity); X. competence of information technology.
Since competencies are considered as a modern way of presenting the results of professional education, special attention is paid to the description of the ninth type, i.e. competencies of professional activity. The basis of their definition was the approach of V.D. Shadrikova, implemented in the development of a professional standard of pedagogical activity: competencies are allocated in accordance with the psychological system of activity. This allowed on the basis of the results of a psychological analysis of the psychologist’s work to characterize the totality of special competencies of the educational psychologist’s professional activities:
? competencies of the motivated implementation of psychological and pedagogical activity, expressed in its dynamics, productivity and personal-semantic significance;
? competence of goal-setting (productive and personal), expressed in prognostic images of the results of psychological and pedagogical impact and personally significant professional achievements of a psychologist;
? competencies to reflect the objective and subjective conditions of activity, expressed in adequate perception, orientation and their study, if necessary;
? competencies in the subject of psychological and pedagogical activity, expressed in an accurate and complete understanding of the psyche of the subject in the variety of its conditions, experiences, relationships;
? competencies in making psychological and pedagogical decisions, expressed in the idea of what needs to be done to achieve a psychological and pedagogical goal;
? programming competencies of psychological and pedagogical activity, expressed in establishing the order of achieving the goal (when, how, under what conditions, by what means);
? the competence of the organization of psychological and pedagogical activity, expressed in the implementation of psychological impact on the subjects of the educational space of the institution in order to optimize their mental functioning, using standard and creative methods (a. competence of organizing the conditions of activity; b. competence of the implementation of the content of activities; c. competence of monitoring the results of psychological -pedagogical activity).
Each of the ten types of competencies is characterized in the work by a set of 115 signs indicating what the education psychologist knows, knows how and what properties. An assessment of development levels of distinguished attributes of educational psychologist competencies, sufficient and necessary for a university graduate and a specialist with experience, conducted with the participation of 45 experts, made it possible to obtain expert preparedness and competency profiles that can be considered as the basis for educational and professional standards of an educational psychologist. It was found that the expert profile of readiness, reflecting the threshold level for the development of competencies for starting independent psychological and pedagogical activity, is significantly lower than the expert profile of competencies, which reflects the basic level of development of competencies adapted in the profession of an educational psychologist. Statistically significant differences in the profiles of preparedness and competency are established using the Mann-Whitney U-test for all ten types of competencies and ten groups of competencies of professional activity. Thus, the validity of the distinction between readiness and competence as adjacent levels of professional development of a specialist was confirmed, when readiness characterizes the result of professionalization by the end of professional training, and competence during independent professional activity.
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