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Psychological training as a method of practical psychology

Nowadays, training groups are understood as all specially created small fupps, whose participants, with the assistance of a leading psychologist, are involved in a peculiar experience of intensive communication, focused on helping everyone in solving various psychological problems and in self-improvement (in particular, in the development of self-awareness).

Group psychological training is a combination of active methods of practical psychology that are used to build skills of self-knowledge and self-development. Moreover, the training methods can be applied both within the framework of clinical psychotherapy in the treatment of neurosis, alcoholism and a number of somatic diseases, and in working with mentally healthy people who have psychological problems in order to assist them in self-development.

Currently, in literature and practical work, the term “training” is interpreted much more widely than it was understood only a few years ago. So, A.P. Sitnikov, a well-known specialist in the field of neurolinguistic programming and acmeology, gives the following definition of training: “Trainings (educational games) are synthetic anthropotechnics that combine educational and gaming activities that take place in conditions of modeling various game situations” (1996. С . 144).

The expansion of the boundaries of the use of this concept is connected, first of all, with an increase in the range of goals that is much wider compared to previously defined goals (development of competence in communication). So, the goals of specially organized trainings are personal growth, learning new psychological technologies or developing new behavioral patterns.

Specific features of the training, allowing to distinguish them from other methods of practical psychology, are:

• compliance with a number of principles of group work;

• focus on psychological assistance to members of the group in self-development, while such assistance comes not only (and sometimes not so much) from the host, but from the participants themselves;

• the presence of a more or less permanent group (usually from 7 to 15 people), periodically gathering for meetings or working continuously for two to five days (the so-called marathon groups);

• a certain spatial organization (most often - work in a convenient isolated room, participants sit in a circle most of the time);

• emphasis on the relationship between the group members, which are developed and analyzed in the situation “here and now”;

• application of active methods of group work;

• objectification of subjective feelings and emotions of group members relative to each other and what is happening in the group, verbalized reflection;

• atmosphere of relaxedness and freedom of communication between participants, a climate of psychological security.

Trainings, being a form of practical psychological work, always reflect in their content a certain paradigm of that direction, the views of which are held by the psychologist conducting the training sessions.
There are several such paradigms:

1. Training as a peculiar form of training, in which the necessary behavioral patterns are formed with the help of rigid manipulative methods with the help of positive reinforcement, and with the help of negative reinforcement harmful, unnecessary ones are “erased”, according to the host;

2. Training as a training, which results in the formation and development of skills and effective behavior;

3. Training as a form of active learning, the purpose of which is, first of all, the transfer of psychological knowledge, as well as the development of certain skills;

4. Training as a method of creating conditions for self-disclosure of participants and their independent search for ways to solve their own psychological problems.

Paradigms are located in the list according to the degree of reduction of the leader’s manipulative level and increase of responsibility for what is happening at the training and awareness of the group members.

aaan The main types of training groups in western and domestic practical psychology aaak

sssn Currently, there are a large number of classifications of psychocorrectional and psychotherapeutic groups, which it is not completely possible to consider. For the first time in Russian, a fairly wide range of methods of group psychological influence was systematically set forth and analyzed in the work of K. Rudestam (1990). In his classification of types of groups, Rudestam relies on two of the most significant parameters - the degree to which the leader plays a leading role in the structuring and functioning of the group and the degree of emotional stimulation as opposed to rational thinking (see table 4).

Table 4

Classification of psychocorrectional groups

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