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Various storage facilities

Based on the work with patients suffering from various brain injuries, the researchers suggested that both explicit and implicit memory manifest in various forms. This is shown in fig. 8.11.



Fig. 8.11.

Estimated classification of various memory stores

. Squire et al. (Squire et al., 1990) offer several different memory systems. The main difference is made between explicit and implicit memory (they call them respectively declarative and non-declarative memory). There are at least 4 types of implicit memory that are involved in skills, relief, conditioning, and some non-associative phenomena, respectively (for example, getting used to a repeated stimulus). There are 2 types of explicit memory: semantic and episodic.



The main difference lies between explicit and implicit memory. Further division of implicit memory is associated with sensorimotor skills (for example, reading words reflected in the mirror) and relief (as in the example with the addition of the basis of words). The reason for the assumption of the participation of various memory stores in skills and relief is brain impairment in patients (those who are at an early stage of Alzheimer's disease) who normally learn motor skills, but who have less relief than normal people. In contrast, there are patients with another brain disorder (Huntington's chorea) who have normal relief, but impaired learning of new motor skills (Schacter, 1989).

In the classification presented in fig.
8.11, two types of explicit memory are postulated - episodic and semantic. Episodic facts are personally experienced episodes, semantic facts are general truths. For example, your recollections of high school graduation and what you ate for dinner last night are episodic facts. In both of these cases, the episode is encoded with its reference to your personality (your graduation from school, your lunch, etc.), and often this episode is also encoded with reference to a specific time and place. All this differs from semantic facts, examples of which are your memory, or the knowledge that the word “bachelor” means “unmarried person” or that 30 days in September. In these cases, knowledge is encoded not with respect to you or a particular place or time, but with reference to another knowledge. For example, you probably don’t remember the context in which you learned that every fourth year February has 29 days (Tulving, 1985).

This distinction between semantic and episodic memory is consistent with the fact that although individuals with amnesia experience extreme difficulty recalling episodes of their own lives, their overall erudition generally remains normal.
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Various storage facilities

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