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Correlation of scientific and everyday psychology
Long before the advent of scientific, everyday psychology developed, because each of us is a psychologist for ourselves. In the entire history of evolution, man has learned: to observe other people, to explain the reasons for their behavior. According to the American psychologist George Kelly, a person explores, studies others and constructs them in his mind. So, all peoples have similar observations of people, expressed in proverbs. For example, the French say: "Do not immerse your hands or even your finger in a quiet stream," and the Russians say: "There are devils in a quiet pool." The figurative meaning of these proverbs is similar.
Each of us has a stock of everyday psychological knowledge. There are even outstanding worldly psychologists. These, of course, are great writers, as well as some (although not all) representatives of professions that involve constant communication with people: teachers, doctors, clergy, etc. But an ordinary person also has certain psychological knowledge. 06 this can be judged by the fact that each person to some extent can understand the other, influence his behavior, predict his actions, take into account his individual characteristics, help him, etc.
Let's think about the question: what is the difference between everyday psychological knowledge from scientific? There are five such differences.
1) First: everyday psychological knowledge, specific; they are confined to specific situations, specific people, specific tasks.
They say that waiters and taxi drivers are also good psychologists. Good everyday psychologists, according to the German philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey, are writers, artists, actors.
But in what sense, for what tasks? As we know, often - quite pragmatic. Also, the child solves specific pragmatic tasks, behaving in one way with his mother, in another with his father, and again in a completely different way with his grandmother. In each case, he knows exactly how to behave in order to achieve the desired goal. But it is unlikely that we can expect from him the same insight in relation to the stranger grandmother or mother. So, everyday psychological knowledge is characterized by concreteness, limited tasks, situations and the people to whom they apply.
Scientific psychology, like any science, seeks generalizations. To do this, she uses scientific concepts. The development of concepts is one of the most important functions of science. In scientific concepts, the most essential properties of objects and phenomena, general relationships and relationships are reflected. Scientific concepts are clearly defined, correlated with each other, linked into laws.
For example, in physics, thanks to the introduction of the concept of force, Isaac Newton was able to describe with the help of three laws of mechanics thousands of different concrete cases of motion and mechanical interaction of bodies.
The same thing happens in psychology. You can describe a person for a very long time, listing in everyday terms his qualities, character traits, actions, relationships with other people. Scientific psychology seeks and finds such generalizing concepts that not only economize descriptions, but also behind a conglomerate of particulars, allow one to see general trends and patterns of personality development and its individual characteristics. One peculiarity of scientific psychological concepts should be noted: they often coincide with everyday ones in their external form, that is, simply put, they are expressed in the same words. However, the internal content, the meanings of these words, as a rule, are different. Worldly terms are usually more vague and ambiguous.
Once high school students were asked to answer a question in writing: what is a person? The answers turned out to be very different, and one student answered like this: "This is what should be checked according to the documents." We will not talk now about how the concept of "personality" is defined in scientific psychology, we only note that this definition is very different from that proposed by the mentioned student.
2). The second difference between everyday psychological knowledge is that they are intuitive. This is due to a special way of obtaining them: they are acquired through practical tests and adjustments.
A similar method is especially clearly seen in children. Their good psychological intuition has already been mentioned. And how is it achieved? Through daily and even hourly trials to which they subject adults and which the latter are not always aware of. And during these tests, children discover from whom it is possible to "twist the rope", and from whom it is impossible.
Teachers and trainers often find effective ways of education, training, training, going the same way: experimenting and vigilantly noting the slightest positive results, that is, in a sense, "going to the touch." Often they turn to psychologists with a request to explain the psychological meaning of the techniques they have found.
In contrast, scientific psychological knowledge is rational and fully conscious. The usual way is to put forward verbally formulated hypotheses and test the consequences that follow logically.
3). The third difference is in the ways of transferring knowledge and even in the very possibility of transferring it.
In the field of practical psychology, this possibility is very limited. This directly follows from the two previous features of everyday psychological experience - its concrete and intuitive nature. The profound psychologist F. M. Dostoevsky expressed his intuition in the works he wrote, we all read them - after that we became equally insightful psychologists? Is life experience transmitted from the older generation to the younger? As a rule, with great difficulty and to a very small extent. The eternal problem of “fathers and children” consists precisely in the fact that children cannot and do not even want to adopt the experience of fathers. Each new generation, each young man has to "cones" himself to gain this experience.
At the same time, in science, knowledge is accumulated and transmitted with great, so to speak, efficiency. Someone has long compared the representatives of science with the pygmies who stand on the shoulders of giants - outstanding scientists of the past. They may be much shorter, but they see further than the giants, because they stand on their shoulders. The accumulation and transfer of scientific knowledge is possible due to the fact that this knowledge crystallizes in concepts and laws. They are recorded in the scientific literature and transmitted using verbal means, i.e., speech and language, which, in fact, we began to do today.
4). The fourth difference is in the methods of obtaining knowledge in the fields of worldly and scientific psychology.
In everyday psychology, we are forced to limit ourselves to observation and reflection. In scientific psychology, an experiment is added to these methods.
The essence of the experimental method is that the researcher does not wait for a set of circumstances, as a result of which a phenomenon of interest arises, but causes this phenomenon itself, creating the appropriate conditions.
Then he purposefully varies these conditions in order to reveal the patterns to which this phenomenon obeys. With the introduction of the experimental method into psychology (the discovery of the first experimental laboratory at the end of the last century), psychology took shape as an independent science.
5) The fifth difference, and at the same time the advantage, of scientific psychology lies in the fact that it has extensive, diverse, and sometimes unique, factual material that is not available in its entirety to any bearer of everyday psychology.
This material is accumulated and comprehended, including in special branches of psychological science, such as developmental psychology, pedagogical psychology, patho-neuropsychology, labor psychology and engineering psychology, social psychology, zoopsychology, etc. In these areas, dealing with various stages and levels of mental development of animals and humans, with defects and diseases of the psyche, with unusual working conditions - stress conditions, information overloads, or, conversely, monotony and information hunger, etc., - siholog not only expands the range of its research tasks, but also faced with new and unexpected phenomena. After all, consideration of the operation of a mechanism under conditions of development, breakdown, or functional overload from different angles highlights its structure and organization.
In the city of Zagorsk there is a special boarding school for deaf-mute children. These are children who have no hearing, no vision, no vision and, of course, initially no speech. The main "channel" through which they can come into contact with the outside world is touch.
And through this extremely narrow channel, in conditions of special education, they begin to know the world, people and themselves! This process, especially at the beginning, is very slow, it is deployed in time and can be seen in many details through a “temporary magnifier” (a term used to describe this phenomenon by famous Soviet scientists A. I. Meshcheryakov and E. V. Ilyenkov). Obviously, in the case of the development of a normal healthy child, much goes too quickly, spontaneously and unnoticed. Thus, helping children under the cruel experiment that nature has set upon them, help organized by psychologists in conjunction with defectologists, turns simultaneously into the most important means of understanding the general psychological laws - the development of perception, thinking, personality.
Skorokhodova Olga Ivanovna (1911-1982) - Russian deaf-blind deaf writer and poetess, psychologist, author of numerous popular science articles and several books. Pupil I.A. Sokolyansky. In childhood, at the age of eight (and not at the age of five, as indicated in her books), she suffered meningitis and completely lost her sight, and then her hearing. In 1922 she was sent to the school of the blind in Odessa, and in 1925 she was accepted into the I.A. Sokolyansky school-clinic for the deaf-deaf in Kharkov (practical and research institution). There, thanks to special classes, she had already restored almost broken up spoken language and began systematic classes using the fingerprint alphabet (finger alphabet of the deaf) and Braille for the blind. At school, they not only examined children, carefully monitored them, but also directed their development. At a certain stage, she was given the task of learning to observe what is happening around the events and keep diary entries. The ability to observe and describe certain events was developed by S. Sokolyansky in parallel, she repeatedly returned to the records of her observations in search of the most successful and accurate literary forms of their presentation. These studies continued in Moscow, where S. moved in 1944 and culminated in the publication of her first book, How I Perceive the World (1947). Since 1946, Mr .. S. - Researcher at the Institute of Defectology. Her publications and speeches are becoming very popular. In 1954, a new supplemented edition of her book, “How I Perceive and Represent the World,” reprinted in 1956, was published. In 1961, S. defended Dis. for the degree of cand. pedagogical sciences (in psychology) and becomes a senior scientist laboratory for the study and education of deaf-blind children, headed by A.I. Meshcheryakov. He takes an active part in organizing the Zagorsk orphanage for the deaf-deaf (1963). In 1972, the 3rd supplemented edition of her book was published, entitled “How I Perceive, Imagine, and Understand the World” (reprinted in 1990).
So, summarizing, we can say that the development of special branches of psychology is a Method (capitalized method) of general psychology. Of course, everyday psychology is deprived of this method.
Thus, everyday psychology is the psychological knowledge gained by people from everyday life.
Scientific psychology is a stable psychological knowledge obtained in the process of theoretical and experimental study of the psyche of people and animals.
And now it is appropriate to pose the question: what position should scientific psychologists take in relation to the bearers of everyday psychology? The Strugatsky brothers find the following thought:
“Of course, being determines consciousness. This is usually the case. However, fortunately, it often turns out that consciousness is ahead of being. Otherwise, we would still be sitting in caves. ”
The history of science, including psychology, knows many examples of how a scientist in the small and abstract saw the big and the vital. So, the outstanding Soviet psychologist L. S. Vygotsky saw in "curious" actions such as tying a knot in memory as ways to master a person's behavior.
You will not read about how to see the reflection of general principles in small facts and how to move from general principles to real life problems. You can develop these abilities in yourself, absorbing the best samples contained in the scientific literature. Only constant attention to such transitions, constant exercise in them can form a feeling of "beating of life" in scientific studies. Well, for this, of course, it is absolutely necessary to possess everyday psychological knowledge, possibly more extensive and deeper.
Ultimately, a scientific psychologist must be both a good everyday psychologist. Otherwise, he will not only be of little use to science, but will not find himself in his profession, simply put, he will be unhappy.
Scientific and everyday psychology are not antagonists; they cooperate and complement each other. So, the relations of scientific and everyday psychology are similar to the relations of Antei and the Earth; the first, touching the second, draws its strength from it. Those. scientific psychology
• firstly, based on everyday psychological experience;
• secondly, extracts its tasks from it;
• finally, thirdly, at the last stage he checks.
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