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Correlation of concepts professional orientation, professional self-determination and professional suitability of an individual

The formation of professional suitability, the formation of a professional is inextricably linked with self-determination of a person, that is, with self-realization, self-affirmation, self-improvement, self-knowledge. This process is due to the manifestations of internal resources, forces, attitudes towards the professional formation of personality and its development. Self-determination of a person is a conscious act of identifying and affirming one’s own position in problematic situations.

According to N. S. Pryazhnikov, professional self-determination is an independent and informed finding of the meanings of the work performed and all life activities in a specific cultural-historical (socio-economic) situation [42; S. 182].

The key to understanding the phenomenon of self-determination is the internal conditioning of human activity, through which external influences are refracted. And in this regard, self-determination of a person acts as self-determination, self-regulation [29; S. 182]. It is active self-determination, expressed in real actions, that leads to the formation and development of those internal conditions that create the possibility of further self-determination. K. A. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya [3; P. 182] focuses on self-determination as an active activity to transform their own lives and external reality.

Traditionally, the problem of personality self-determination is considered in developmental psychology when analyzing the characteristics of adolescence and youth. Active thinking about the meaning of life, the search for one’s own path in life and the ultimate values ​​of existence at this age — in other words, the search for meaning or the value-semantic aspect of self-determination is reflected in many studies [42; S. 182].

Self-determination of a person and, in particular, the formation of the image of “I am a professional” reflects the process of its identification (identification), which, in accordance with the concept of V.V. Stolin [51; P. 184] about self-awareness, manifested in:

a) identifying and experiencing similarities with another person (“model”),

b) the experience of emotions in connection with the behavior of the "model" in various situations,

c) the desire to possess the qualities inherent in the "model",

d) assimilation and reproduction of the behavior and attitudes of the “model”.

In this regard, the identification process may be one of the mechanisms of personal and professional self-determination.

Self-determination is also considered from the perspective of choice in a problem situation, and in this regard, it can act either as a natural process of value-semantic and personal restructuring of development at the stages of ontogenesis, or as an artificially organized process of choosing or changing a profession, changing the nature of labor, etc. In the latter case, the professional experience and labor standards conflict with the new conditions.

Thus, professional self-determination of a person is in a causal relationship with the professional development of a person, the process of becoming a professional. It is a personal mechanism for the manifestation and formation of professional suitability. In turn, professional self-determination is determined, regulated and manifested in the form of various functions that reflect the relationship of a particular person with various aspects of the inner world and the surrounding reality. In this regard, the study and consideration of the features of professional self-determination of a person contributes to an understanding of the processes of regulation of the formation of professional suitability and the formation of a professional, as well as their effective use in the system of professionalization of a person.

So, the results of theoretical and experimental studies indicate that the problem of the formation of professional suitability and the formation of a professional is associated with the features of the processes of professionalization of the subject of labor and the laws of mental development of the individual. Assessment and formation of professional suitability in modern conditions of social development becomes a dynamic procedure, necessary for application at various stages of the professional path and, consequently, age development. This situation is due to the growing role of individually significant social, economic and professional situations, sometimes of a problem and crisis nature.

The professionalization of the personality in the phenomenological and productive (efficiency) plan is interconnected with the features of its mental development. Both of these processes are determined both by a combination of external activation influences of social, professional, environmental and other factors of life and activity, and by the influence of internal, subjective characteristics of a person (development of abilities, the formation of self-determination, the influence of functional states, etc.).

The ideas of a profession-genetic approach to the study and improvement of labor activity based on ideas about the psychic mechanisms of regulation of the process of becoming a professional have been developed and substantiated in a number of works, a brief review of which is presented in [6; S. 661-668]. Professional suitability as a category of the “man-profession” system. Humanity in its development, in the desire to create better conditions for its existence, is capable, first of all, of solving the problems of technological progress and, to a much lesser extent, of social well-being. As for the biological and, in particular, psychological improvement of man, the pace of this process is much lower, and the success of his adaptation to the developing world is largely determined by the study and consideration of his ability to live and work in this world, and the creation of a system of his social and technical protection and support. It is easy to understand that the implementation of this task requires not only the mobilization of significant resources of society, but also a long time.

A specific person has to make decisions in a very short period of time on choosing a professional path in a situation where specific types of activity, their characteristics, sometimes impose higher requirements on the level of preparedness (general and special), health status, functional (mental, physiological, etc.) capabilities person.
Some of these requirements can be adapted over time (if available) or through a special training and adaptation system. Other of them become an insurmountable obstacle for some people on the way to mastering the profession.

That is why the process of choosing a profession, determining a professional path, becoming a professional and examining the success of mastering and implementing labor activities requires, on the one hand, an assessment of the level of a person’s compliance with the requirements of the profession, on the other hand, the active formation and training of him as a specialist [6; S. 10].

So, since professional suitability is a property of a subject of activity, insofar as it, like its other properties (working capacity, professional and functional reliability, etc.), is formed in the process of activity. However, it is hardly possible to deny the need to study and determine the prerequisites for professional suitability itself, that is, its psychological, physiological, medical and other factors, which makes it possible in each case to outline the prognosis and ways to achieve its required level.

It is appropriate to pay attention to the statement of E.A. Klimova that “the expression“ professional suitability ”is conditional: if we take the existing working conditions and means of labor and the characteristics of a person for something unchanged, then we can consider people as more or less suitable for this work“ here and now ”. In other words, the property of fitness can be attributed to a person only as situational - inherent, strictly speaking, not to him, but to the system "subject - object" ... As for the person, his suitability is formed in the activity itself, so that before the corresponding activity is included in the active activity kind and cannot be the expected suitability as a whole and the "finished" form ”[21, p. 107]. This confirms the previously substantiated position that professional suitability is a property of both the “subject-object” system and the “object” when it (that is, in activity — its means, content, etc.) takes into account and reflects the features “ human link ”of the system and the property of the“ subject ”when its formation is carried out in accordance with the requirements of the“ object ”. The suitability for a particular profession is quite dynamic due to the constant development of both the activity itself and the personality of a professional. The subject’s professional path is associated with a periodic and partial change in the requirements of the activity in view of changing or improving its means, setting up new labor tasks, the emergence of extreme conditions, violations in the organization of activities, etc. For the formation of professional suitability, awareness of the ways, methods and criteria for achieving the highest The frontiers in this process are important the idea of ​​self-determination in the context of the study of self-awareness, self-knowledge and "I-concept." In this case, the interpretation of self-determination is based on the knowledge and understanding of oneself, the surrounding conditions, which are Kaic cognitive essence of activity and the search for the meaning of existence, that is, self-determination in the context of self-awareness is, first of all, awareness of one’s properties, capabilities in building and realizing life ( professional) meanings and plans. As V.F.Safin and G.P. Nikov point out, a self-determined personality is a subject who has realized what he wants (his goals, life plans, ideals), what he is (his personal and physical properties), what he can ( own abilities, inclinations), what the collective, society expect from him [50; S. 65-73]

Thus, the analysis of various approaches to the study of professional and personal self-determination and its role in the formation and manifestation of the professional suitability of the subject of activity allows us to draw a number of conclusions.

Firstly, self-determination is a process and the result of semantic and value orientations of a person, his life positions and attitudes and criteria for personal attitude to events and phenomena of life, behavior strategies in typical and crisis situations, etc.

Secondly, self-determination acts as a mechanism for determining behavior, and in this regard it should be considered as a regulator of a person’s labor activity, level of labor achievements and, therefore, degree of professional suitability.

Thirdly, from the standpoint of the implementation of such a function of personal self-determination as the search for meaning, we can talk about its role in the formation of a sense of necessity, satisfaction (dissatisfaction) with the process and the result of professional activity, a feeling (and degree) of criticality in relation to a specific labor process, which, in turn, reflects the level of professionalization of the individual.

Fourth, self-determination acts as a mechanism for figuratively regulating the process of becoming a professional on the basis of the formation and comparison of ideas about oneself as a professional and a professional standard - the more adequate these images are in reality and the more active the behavior is in order to achieve the standard, the more favorable is the forecast of high suitability. And finally, the function of self-determination for the integration of various forms of labor activity, being a factor in the professional development of the individual, also determines the process of formation of the professional suitability of the subject of activity.

Professional suitability for the development and practical implementation of activities depends on the degree of development, the characteristics of the manifestation and differential characteristics of various personal properties and qualities of a person. However, despite the noticeable difference in the content of complexes of professionally important qualities in different types of activities, there are a number of personal qualities that are professionally significant for almost any profession, and their formation, development and manifestation are associated with any type of activity. These are qualities such as responsibility, self-control, emotional stability, anxiety, and others.
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Correlation of concepts professional orientation, professional self-determination and professional suitability of an individual

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