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Social psychology at the enterprise and firm
Industrial production has traditionally been one of the main customers for applied social and psychological research, and the problem of forming production teams is the most typical. Common topics in the framework of such studies: the psychological climate of the team, job satisfaction, labor turnover, certification of personnel, adaptation of newcomers (Andreeva, 1998, p.336-338).
Together with psychologists, specialists in economics and sociology can be included in solving these problems, with whom it is important for a psychologist to be able to successfully interact.
When studying the psychological climate of an enterprise or company, the psychologist identifies the type of relationship between the leader and subordinates, the perception of the leader by subordinates and vice versa. The cohesion of the team, the nature of interpersonal relations, the compatibility of participants in joint work, types of conflicts, and job satisfaction are also emerging.
Since the study of the psychological climate of the enterprise includes a large complex of socio-psychological problems, in each specific situation the social psychologist must be creative in choosing the necessary methods and techniques for this.
There are three different positions of a social psychologist in the process of socio-psychological research at the enterprise.
The position of an applied psychologist who fulfills an order, but is not included in the structure of an industrial enterprise. This gives him some independence and allows him to solve the once set tasks. But at the same time, the possibility of a sufficiently deep knowledge of the problems of the team and constant participation in their solution is lost. He acts as a person from the side with all the advantages and disadvantages of such a situation.
The position of a practical psychologist working in conjunction with other specialists in the psychological service of the enterprise. There may be several psychologists in such a service. In this case, the social psychologist specializes in solving social and psychological problems of the team, leaving the solution to other production problems to specialists in labor psychology.
The position of a practical psychologist working in the singular.
In this case, it is unlikely to remain a narrow specialist in social psychology. A social psychologist needs knowledge in other areas of psychology and participation in solving the whole complex of psychological problems of the enterprise. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that socio-psychological problems are the most typical, and enterprises often need them. In the light of the fact that there are much more small enterprises and firms in modern conditions, this is the position of the psychologist that is most typical.
Due to the economic difficulties of many enterprises in our country in the 1990s, the number of socio-psychological studies decreased, many psychological services of large enterprises were reduced or closed. Currently, orders for studies of this kind can arise at enterprises of various types, including small firms, state-owned, joint-stock or private firms. However, it should be borne in mind that many managers do not realize the need for socio-psychological knowledge for the successful organization of the enterprise. At the same time, there are often unjustifiably optimistic and high expectations in this regard. They hope for psychology as a sorceress who will help solve all problems ("You are a psychologist!") And give specific advice in any situation. Destruction of these illusions can lead to disappointment in psychologists. Therefore, social psychologists must be flexible enough to, while maintaining scientific and psychological integrity, maintain and develop the demand for socio-psychological knowledge, to help people realize the real value of psychology.
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Social psychology at the enterprise and firm
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