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The connection of psychology with other sciences and its place in the system of sciences

Modern psychology occupies a special place among other scientific disciplines, because combines in a single whole the most diverse knowledge about a person. The Swiss psychologist J. Piaget noted that “... psychology occupies a key position in the system of sciences. On the one hand, psychology depends on all other sciences and sees in psychological life the result of physicochemical, biological, social, linguistic, economic and other factors that are studied by all sciences that deal with objects of the outside world. But, on the other hand, none of these sciences is impossible without logical and mathematical coordination, the mastery of which is possible only through the influence of the organism on objects, and only psychology allows us to study this activity in development. "

Thus, psychology is becoming an important means of interconnection of modern sciences in the field of human cognition, combining natural science, technical and social scientific disciplines (Fig. 1).

According to the point of view of B.M. Kedrova, psychology is central to the system of other sciences, because on the one hand, it is an integrative product of other sciences, and on the other hand, it acts as a source of further development of other scientific areas.

Briefly describing the relationship of psychology with the natural sciences, it should be noted, for example, that psychology borrowed some theories from biology to substantiate the laws of phylogenetic development of the psyche. The problem of the correlation of hereditary and social factors affecting the intellectual and personal development of an individual is one of the central in psychology.

In this regard, the scientific data of a science such as genetics, which provides material on the mechanisms of inheritance of certain inclinations, a predisposition to mental illness, etc., are important for her.

Psychology is closely related to the physiology of higher nervous activity. So, psychophysiology studies the relationship of the psyche with its material substrate - the brain.


Fig. 1.

The place of psychology in the system of sciences





Clinical psychologists work in close collaboration with physicians (and, first of all, with neuropathologists and psychiatrists), developing problems of diagnosis, prevention, correction, and rehabilitation of sick people.

Psychology is closely connected with the humanities. It developed for a long time within the framework of philosophy and many psychological schools are based on certain philosophical systems. Today, many philosophical problems are being developed in psychology, such as the relationship between the material and the ideal, biological and social, subjective and objective. Psychologists actively use the data of history, anthropology, philology, linguistics, etc. Together with sociology - the science of social systems and processes - psychology studies the psychological patterns of interaction between a person and his social environment.

Political analysts study the behavior of individuals and groups in a political context, so problems such as conflict resolution, sources of power, its accumulation and distribution are extremely relevant for psychology.

Psychology is closely interconnected with technical sciences. In particular, the development of various sociotechnical systems involves taking into account the mental and psychophysiological capabilities of a person as the most complex element of the "man - machine" system. Mathematical sciences provide psychology with statistical methods for processing diagnostic results of psychological research. In addition, a simulation method has been widely used recently.

Thus, psychology, on the one hand, accumulates theoretical and empirical knowledge of other sciences and at the same time provides these sciences with the necessary information related to the psychological characteristics of a person.
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The connection of psychology with other sciences and its place in the system of sciences

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