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Conditions for the formation of self-esteem of students during their studies at a university
In numerous psychological studies on adolescence, most often the emphasis is on the development of self-awareness and adequate self-esteem, because it is this age that is the central period in the formation of the worldview system, some character traits and social intelligence. These issues are of great importance when it comes to students. The word “student” is of Latin origin and means “hard working, engaged,” i.e. mastering knowledge. A characteristic feature of moral development in adolescence is the strengthening of conscious motives for behavior. Those qualities that were fully lacking in the upper grades - determination, determination, perseverance, independence, initiative, self-mastery are noticeably strengthened. At the same time, experts in the field of developmental psychology and physiology note that a person’s ability to consciously regulate his behavior at the age of 17-18 is not fully developed. This should be taken into account when building joint activities in the educational process. It should be remembered that the educational process itself is one of the main factors affecting the development of personality. The process of personality formation is carried out in ontogenesis under the influence of a number of factors. The formation of individual - typological features depends on both the natural inclinations and environmental influences. Student age is characterized by the fact that during this period many optimums for the development of intellectual and physical forces are achieved, and a changing attitude towards oneself colors all actions. Physical data, which are of such great importance in adolescence, do not lose their relevance, but they seem to fade into the background, and mental abilities, knowledge, abilities and skills come first.
Scientific research revealed: each person, intentionally or without realizing it, often compares himself with others and, as a result, develops a fairly stable opinion about his intellect, appearance, health, i.e. forms a "set of self-esteem." Self-esteem is an awareness of one's own identity regardless of changing environmental conditions. Most people tend to rate themselves slightly above average.
This allows us to conclude that a person is characterized by a need for a fairly high self-esteem. Overstated self-esteem is noticeably found among students in an exaggeration of their mental abilities. Underestimation of their abilities negatively affects cash. There is a feeling of dissatisfaction, a lowered mood background is created, and an “inferiority complex” is consolidated. Persistent excessively low self-esteem entails excessive dependence on others, lack of independence, distorted perception of others. The formation of self-esteem in students is influenced by many factors: the position among peers, the attitude of teachers, etc. Comparing the opinions of people around him, a person forms self-esteem, and at first he learns to evaluate others, and then himself. And only in adolescence does the skill of introspection, self-observation and reflection, the ability to analyze their own results and, thereby, evaluate themselves, take shape. The formation of personality includes a relatively stable image of the "I" that ensures the integrity of the psychological appearance, i.e. self-image. Psychologists consider self-acceptance as the basis of that complex psychological education, which is called "I-concept." Self-esteem is carried out by comparing the ideal "I" with the real, but at this age, the ideal "I" has not yet been comprehensively evaluated by the individual. This objective contradiction in the development of the personality of a young person can cause him internal self-doubt.
The youthful age, according to E. Erickson, is built around an identity crisis, consisting of a series of social and individually-personal choices, identifications and self-determination. If a young man fails to solve these problems, he develops an inadequate identity. All this suggests that this period of life is most important for the formation of an adequate self-esteem. But for this, certain conditions must be created. It is necessary that education in a university be aimed at developing personal reflection and prepare students for solving problems of self-determination. We must try to increase the level of self-esteem of students to improve performance, because overestimated self-esteem and an exaggerated sense of control over events can be interpreted as egocentrism. Memory has an egocentric organization: the higher the personal significance of the event or the more people are involved in it, the easier it is to remember this event. Therefore, positive illusions regarding the student’s own personality can beneficially affect both memory and other cognitive processes. All the above suggests that the creation of a positive atmosphere in the educational process contributes to the formation of adequate self-esteem of students and effective development, the manifestation of their intellectual abilities .
During the first three years of study at a university, the majority of students lose their personal sense of professional training, which manifests itself in dissatisfaction with their professional choice and unwillingness to continue the professional path of a teacher.
If in the first year 61.5% of students are satisfied with their professional choice, then in the second year they become 46.8%, and in the third - 33.3%. If in the first year 69.2% of students say that they will go to work as a teacher, then in the second year their number is reduced to 25%.
As our study showed, dissatisfaction with professional choice and a negative attitude to the teaching profession are most often associated with a lack of knowledge of the essential features of the teaching profession, primarily with a lack of understanding of its motivational potential, i.e. opportunities to meet the basic needs of the individual: in communication, cognition, social recognition, self-esteem, self-realization and creativity.
A stable positive attitude of the student’s personality to himself as the subject of the upcoming pedagogical activity acts as a criterion for the completeness of the process of his professional self-determination, and is also an indicator that professional training has a personal meaning for him. However, as our study has shown, a positive attitude towards oneself as a subject of pedagogical activity is far from characteristic of all senior students. In particular, while in the first year, 66.6% of students think that they can become a good teacher, in the fourth year, only 41.5%. Only 38.5% of fifth-year students believe that they possess the qualities necessary for the successful work of a teacher.
The study revealed the positive role of active teaching practice in the formation of an adequate "image of a professional self" of a future teacher. After teaching practice, the majority of students' opinions about the profession (58.4% in the fourth year and 54% in the fifth) and about themselves as a teacher (73.5% in the fourth year and 54.2% in the fifth) improve, and their assessment success in professional development is becoming more objective.
Thus, in the course of vocational training and preparation for pedagogical activity, the ideas about the profession and about yourself as a future teacher are replenished and expanded, the result of this is the establishment of the personal meaning of vocational training, which occurs in most students only in senior courses. As our study has shown, the effectiveness of this process is positively influenced by active and systematic professional self-knowledge aimed at forming an adequate picture of oneself as the subject of the upcoming pedagogical activity. Thus, professional self-awareness is an indispensable psychological condition for the effectiveness of the process of professional formation of a future teacher. [40; S. 55]
However, the negative trends identified in the work in the formation of the student’s professional identity indicate the need for special work to manage this process, to provide students with timely assistance in the formation of an adequate "image of a professional self." The result of this work will be the formation of an active subject of professional development, capable of analyzing their life and professional goals, motives, self-capabilities and comparing them with the requirements of pedagogical activity. When organizing such work, we suggest taking into account the following practical recommendations.
It is necessary:
- to form a positive attitude of students to their future profession;
- to reveal the essential aspects of pedagogical activity, reflecting its motivational potential, high social significance;
- to stimulate the cognitive activity of students, aimed at understanding the psychological characteristics of their own personality and activities;
- to form students' conscious need for constant, systematic self-knowledge, reflection and professional development;
- to form students' perceptual-reflexive and gnostic abilities and skills that contribute to the creation of an adequate "image of a professional self";
- use various forms of psychological training for the positive development and strengthening of the self-concept of future teachers [12; S. 35].
Thus, in the course of vocational training and preparation for pedagogical activity, the ideas about the profession and about yourself as a future teacher are replenished and expanded, the result of this is the establishment of the personal meaning of vocational training, which occurs in most students only in senior courses. As our study has shown, the effectiveness of this process is positively influenced by active and systematic professional self-knowledge aimed at forming an adequate picture of oneself as the subject of the upcoming pedagogical activity. Thus, professional self-awareness is an indispensable psychological condition for the effectiveness of the process of professional formation of a future teacher [40; S. 55].
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Conditions for the formation of self-esteem of students during their studies at a university
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