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Today, one of the most sought-after professions is the profession of a psychologist. Currently, more than 150 universities in the country are training relevant specialists. The existing experience of their preparation in higher education convincingly proves that the image of the future graduate profession should be the same object of formation as professional knowledge, skills, and ways of thinking. In connection with this state educational standard, it is envisaged to study in universities a special educational discipline - "Introduction to the profession."

The purposeful formation of understanding by future specialists of the value priorities of professional activity largely contributes to their achievement of professional independence based on a meaningful and interested attitude to the results of their work. The increased attention to the problem of independent and effective functioning of man in the conditions of military activity is also characteristic of the current stage of development of the Armed Forces of Russia. Strengthening the moral and psychological state and psychological stability of personnel, increasing their readiness and ability to perform tasks in any situation are carried out within the framework of the general strategic line of the state for the professionalization of army structures. Ensuring the professionalization of military personnel, in turn, implies the need for scientifically based psychological support for this process.

One of the directions in the implementation of this requirement is the introduction of psychologist positions in the troops, carried out as part of the reorganization of the entire system of education and training of personnel since the beginning of the 1990s. At present, certain experience in the work of psychologists has been accumulated; the search for optimal ways and methods for their selection, preparation and use continues. A positive step is the process of gradual registration of the main structural units of the psychological service, which creates the possibility of expanding the professional interaction of both psychologists themselves and their professional support.

At the same time, the process of psychologists entering a new position and fulfilling their professional duties is actually quite complicated, and sometimes ineffective. As studies of the professional development of psychologists show, the effectiveness of this process depends on a number of conditions and factors that make up the social situation of professional development.

The success of professional formation and the fulfillment of functional duties is largely determined by the degree to which the psychologist is included in such a structure of professional and active relations and relationships, the interaction with the subjects of which at each of the stages of formation contributes to the formation of his very ability to be a full-fledged subject of various types of professional activity. This (integral) ability to be a subject of activity, or the professional subjectivity of a specialist, is associated primarily with his ability to independently set goals and regulate professional activities on the basis of internal criteria of effectiveness and expediency, planning and implementation of professional self-development.

At the same time, the lack of a clear idea of ​​the specifics of the psychologist’s professional activity among officials, the insufficient conformity of organizational structures to the needs of their professional growth, make it difficult to develop an optimal model for the psychologist’s functioning in the system of professional-activity and service interaction with other subjects of psychological work. In addition, the vagueness, and in some cases the lack of clear criteria for assessing the professionalism of the psychologist and the subject line of his activities with the activities of other specialists, complicates the processes of his professional identification and self-determination, which serve as a necessary basis for the professional development of the psychologist.

The need to comprehensively ensure the conditions for the purposeful formation and development of professional subjectivity of a specialist is also due to the very nature of the profession of psychologist. His activity is very specific by the nature of the conjugation of psychological, ethical, legal and other aspects of the information used, which is related to its main subject - the mental reality of people. In this regard, an important task is the formation by psychologists of an adequate understanding of the need, possibility and measure of their professional intervention in the personal life of another person. The solution of this problem only within the framework of the formation of professionalism and professional competence seems to be not quite sufficient.

Mastering the socially determined standards of the profession is a necessary but not sufficient condition for achieving truly independent, creative and proactive implementation of professional activities. The fact is that professionalism always involves a certain limitation of the development of the personality of a psychologist in the range of tasks that are solved in the process of a particular type of activity. At the same time, in his professional practice, situations are quite frequent that require a transition from role-based relations to personal-semantic ones. Most often this happens when a problem-conflict situation arises before the psychologist, which cannot be overcome with the help of previously learned stereotypes of social behavior. In this case, he is required to be able to navigate in a complex system of values ​​and meaning-forming motives. It is in such a situation of free choice that the personality of the psychologist is particularly vividly manifested as a subject of activity.

In this regard, the period coinciding with the beginning of independent activity after graduation, when the type and nature of its interaction with other subjects, is significant, is indicative.
The relatively structured (in terms of the purposeful and controlled nature of mastering the standards of the profession) educational environment of the university is replaced by a situation in which the number of acts of independent functional self-determination of a psychologist increases sharply, associated with problematic situations in his work. In the face of a shortage of the psychologist’s external prolonged professional orientation in the norms of the profession, the requirements for his personal and professional potential, the ability on the basis of in-depth self-knowledge, correlation of his personal qualities with the requirements of the humanistic paradigm, to provide an adequate choice of the method and measure of professional intervention in the life of another person increase.

Thus, given the current requirements for the level of professionalism of military personnel, the formation of future specialists with an adequate idea of ​​the content and characteristics of the chosen profession is a prerequisite for their successful professional development. An important role in solving this problem belongs to the course "Introduction to the profession."

In its theoretical foundations, this course goes back to the psychology of labor, profession, didactics of higher education. One of the first books on professional development - “Guidance on the choice of profession” - was published in France in 1849. Further scientific research in this area contributed to the development of activities aimed at building a typology of professions, clarifying the requirements of each of them for professionally important qualities of a person, and assisting in the selection of a particular specialty. Currently, the following areas are distinguished in the study of specialist professionalization.

In line with the first direction, the problems of the development of man as a subject of activity are investigated: the age-related patterns of human formation are studied; the role of abilities, interests, psychological and physiological characteristics of a person in the process of choosing a profession and mastering a specialty in a university; ways and means of forming informational formations, motivation, skills and abilities, individual style of activity, problems of professional self-determination.

The second direction combines psychological research that reveals the objective side of specific professions and specialties: their typology, content and structure, role in the life of society; requirements for specialists, success criteria for their activities.

The third area is the study of the conditions that accompany the process of professionalization, the study of the problems of a specialist entering the professional environment and the professional community; factors affecting the success of professional activities and contributing to the effectiveness of social forms of regulation of the process of professionalization of a specialist.

The need for a comprehensive analysis of these problems led to the structure of this training course, which involves the study of three main sections:

Section I. Psychology as a science.

Section II. Psychology as a professional activity.

Section III. Psychology of mastering the professional activities of a psychologist.

Psychology appears to students as scientific knowledge created and developed by the forces of scientific researchers, and as a specific field of activity of practical psychologists. In this regard, the discipline "Introduction to the profession" is designed to familiarize cadets with the content and specifics of their chosen professional activities.

In the course of mastering the course, in addition to acquaintance with psychology as a system of scientific knowledge and practical methods of its use, the cadet must be aware of: 1) the ways and means of entering this system as an active subject; 2) ways and means of "penetration" of this system into each specialist. The goal of such a psychology entry for cadets is to learn to turn the impersonal knowledge of academic disciplines into personally significant factors of their formation as a subject of activity.

As a result of studying the discipline "Introduction to the profession", students should:

a) have an idea:

- about the main stages and patterns of development of professionalism of a psychologist;

- On the content of professional requirements for the personality of the psychologist.

b) know:

- subject, methods and main categories of psychological science;

- leading principles, forms, means and methods of activity of practical psychologists;

- The basic requirements for the process of training psychologists at a university;

- the functions of psychology and the scope of application of psychological knowledge in various fields of life;

- key tasks and functional purpose of military psychologists;

c) be able to:

- practically use the knowledge gained in psychology in the context of educational activities, organize their educational activities taking into account psychological patterns;

- use the basic methods of self-diagnosis of professionalism and its dynamics in the learning process;

- own techniques for assessing the level of development of their abilities;

- use psychological literature, materials of specific psychological research.

Teaching of the discipline is carried out in close interconnection with general professional disciplines. At the same time, the role of psychological knowledge in the implementation of future activities and in the educational process is revealed. In order for cadets to fully understand the specifics and methods of psychological work, in the course of studying the discipline it is planned to attract specialists from among military psychologists, representatives of the psychological service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

The authors hope that the presented manual will be a tangible help for students in the practical development of their future professional activities.
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