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Nowadays, a person can ask for help from a variety of specialists whose profession name includes the root "psycho" (Greek "psyche" - soul). What do all these connoisseurs of human souls do?

A psychiatrist is the only specialist with a “psycho” root who has the right to make a diagnosis and prescribe medications. In the arsenal of treatment strategies of a psychiatrist are pharmacotherapy (i.e. medications) and psychotherapy. Most often, these two methods are combined.

Only a doctor can be a psychotherapist. People of other specialties who practice psychotherapy are subject to the Criminal Code for illegal treatment. By definition, psychotherapy is a method of non-drug treatment. Like surgery, for example. Only there is a scalpel, and here is the word. And the word discord, therefore, a person without a medical education, engaged in medical activities, violates the law.

Today, according to the register of specialties, there are four specializations of psychologists.

The pathopsychologist assists the psychiatrist in diagnosing mental disorders. If the psychiatrist makes a diagnosis based on the clinical manifestations of the disease, then the pathopsychologist uses formal examination methods, that is, various tests and scales. Its task is to identify disorders of memory, thinking, intelligence, emotional and volitional sphere and inform the psychiatrist about this.

The neuropsychologist is a diagnostic assistant for the neurosurgeon and neurologist. Its task is to indicate with the help of special tests exactly in which area of ​​the brain there is damage and what kind it is. In neuropsychological tests, disorders of the motor, ideotor (sequence of thinking) spheres, spheres of perception and reproduction of information are studied.
The specialist knows what function which part of the brain is responsible for. Accordingly, if the patient cannot perform a series of tests, the neuropsychologist notes in which area the brain is affected. This information is necessary for the neurosurgeon to perform the operation.

The neuropsychologist can also work in a team with a neurologist and psychiatrist. Thanks to the repeated repetition of samples difficult for the child, the neuropsychologist can achieve stimulation of the affected areas of the brain. This will become part of the correction program that this troika of specialists is developing.

Based on statistical data, a social psychologist studies the attitude of society to certain social phenomena and gives general recommendations. Roughly speaking, he finds out whether the women of Russia like the fact that the president put on a red tie yesterday. Based on the results of the survey, a social psychologist draws a conclusion like: "Mr. President, don’t put on a red tie anymore, because a large part of your electorate doesn’t like it." A social psychologist is not related to a particular individual, nor to medicine.

A few years ago, a specialty clinical psychologist appeared. This model is taken from Western experience. There are psychologists working in services for helping seriously ill patients: cancer, HIV-infected, etc. A clinical psychologist must understand what a person is sick with, monitor the change in his mental functions and involve a psychiatrist and a neurologist so that they correct the condition of the seriously ill patient and provide him with an acceptable level of existence.
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