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Analytical activity of the commander on the analysis and evaluation of the moral and psychological states of military personnel
The starting point of the commander’s activities in strengthening the moral and psychological state, increasing his maturity and stability in the subunit, part is his diagnosis. At the same time, it is important to evaluate and know two main characteristics of the moral and psychological state: the degree of its maturity and generality, unity among the servicemen of the unit being evaluated, part. Depending on the tasks to be solved, the time and other capabilities of the commander, one or other variants of methods for diagnosing the moral and psychological state can be used: assessing the moral and psychological state based on its in-depth and comprehensive analysis or on the basis of its rapid analysis; analysis and evaluation of the current (or for a certain period of time) moral state or its forecast; analysis and evaluation of the moral and psychological state of individual servicemen, officials, and either combat crews, shifts, subunits, and the unit as a whole. The main benchmarks in assessing the moral and psychological state of servicemen should be ideological, moral-political and military-professional standards of our country, people, society, state, Armed forces, interests of military service and activities, requirements of the military oath and military regulations, the Constitution of the state. On the other hand, the system of indicators and criteria for evaluating the moral and psychological state of the personnel will be substantive and logically harmonious if it is oriented towards the structure / substantive and psychological / moral and psychological state and for the main elements of this structure relevant groups of indicators and criteria for their evaluation.
Like any spiritual phenomenon, the moral and psychological state is objectified, materialized in the subject-practical activity of servicemen, in its results and consequences. On the other hand, the moral and psychological state is subjectively manifested in the subjective military professional, moral and political interests, opinions, judgments, attitudes, emotional states, and aspirations of servicemen. In this regard, among the indicators of the moral and psychological state of military personnel it is advisable to distinguish two interrelated, but relatively independent groups: objective, general, objective-practical, activity plan and subjective, specific, psychological nature. The first group includes the following main indicators: the quality of solving combat and other military service tasks, the state of military equipment and weapons, military discipline in the unit, combat, humanitarian and psychological training, the level of organization of social and educational work with personnel. With a certain approach, the moral and psychological state of servicemen can be judged on the basis of evaluating only these indicators. At the same time, these are indicators not only of the moral and psychological state, but of the specific features of the activities of the management bodies, their competence, credibility, etc. And, therefore, these are general indicators.
Among the specific, subjective indicators of the moral and psychological state in the first place are the following: a) military-professional component: the attitude of military personnel to military service, their military specialty, profession, solved by military service and other tasks, the degree of their desire to faithfully perform these tasks , to master military affairs, to improve in it. The generalized indicator of the moral and psychological state of servicemen on the basis of this component is the degree of personnel satisfaction with their military professional activity and its results; b) the military-moral component: the nature of the relationship of servicemen, the degree and nature of the authority of the commanding staff, especially the relationship of servicemen with the civilian population in the area of deployment units, units. The generalized indicator of the moral and psychological state of servicemen on the basis of this component is the degree of personnel satisfaction with their relationships and their position, status in the relationship system, and the moral and psychological atmosphere in the unit; c) the political component: the nature of the understanding and the degree of internal acceptance by the military of foreign, domestic and military policy, the military doctrine of the state.
The generalized indicator of the moral and psychological state on the basis of this component can be the degree of satisfaction of servicemen
state policy, which becomes the basis of their willingness to defend it.
Under certain circumstances, it is advisable to evaluate the moral and psychological state of military personnel on the basis of only generalized indicators, taking into account objective and general indicators of the moral and psychological state of the personnel. Diagnostics of indicators of the moral and psychological state is carried out with the help of specially designed questionnaires and can be done by questioning the military units, units, or through expert evaluation. The experts may be the commanders, their deputies for educational work, higher officials, governing bodies, and inspectors. The total, final assessment of the moral and psychological state is derived from two assessments:
estimates of its maturity level; assessments of the degree of stability, strength, and reliability of the revealed level of maturity of the moral and psychological state of servicemen.
To obtain a second assessment of the subjective indicators of the moral and psychological state, an adapted version of the method of E. Eidemiller and V. Yustitsky can be used: “Typical states", by definition, professional and morally conditioned personality states: satisfaction - dissatisfaction (V), neuropsychic tension (N) , anxiety (T). The data on these states allow us to better assess and predict the moral and psychological state of servicemen. Evaluation of moral and psychology eskogo state personnel as a whole and its individual indicators should be performed on a 5-point scale assessment of general conditions.:
5 points - an assessment of the indicator, the attitude of the person is highly positive, aspirations and readiness are highly positive and constructive;
4 points - an assessment of the indicator and the attitude of the individual are more positive than negative, and aspirations and readiness are more positive than negative;
3 points - there is no assessment of the indicator, it is neutral, both positive and negative characteristics are expressed to the same extent, personality relations are neutral, there are no aspirations;
2 points - an assessment of the indicator and the relationship of the individual are more negative than positive, and the aspirations are more negative than the positive direction;
1 point - an assessment of the indicator and the attitude of the person are negative, and aspirations are negatively directed. Offering a quantitative assessment of the moral and psychological state, we proceed from the fact that having the opportunity to get at least a “rough”, approximate, differentiated assessment of the diagnosed phenomenon, its individual indicators is better than its absence. The procedure for distinguishing the assessment of the moral and psychological state can be the following:
1st, on the basis of the obtained estimates of the indicators of each component of the moral and psychological state, the arithmetic mean of the assessment of the corresponding component of each serviceman is derived;
2, from these estimates, the arithmetic average of the overall assessment of the moral and psychological state of each soldier;
3rd, on the basis of these assessments, the overall assessment of the moral and psychological state of the subunit, or part, is derived arithmetically.
Depending on the results obtained, it is advisable to single out the following levels of maturity of the moral and psychological state of military personnel (see Table N 1).
Table number 1
The score obtained in this way characterizes the degree of maturity of the moral and psychological state of the unit's personnel. For a more accurate diagnostic and psychological state of the personnel of a subunit, part, especially in the interests of increasing the reliability of its forecast, it is necessary to identify the degree of commonality of personnel on the basis of the obtained maturity of its moral and psychological state. The index of community based on the identified maturity of the moral and psychological state is calculated by the formula:
n is the number of servicemen surveyed;
x - the assessment of the i-th soldier;
m - arithmetic average assessment of the moral and psychological state of the evaluated unit;
The same formula can be used to calculate the indices of stability, tension and anxiety of the evaluated unit. The assessment of the moral and psychological state of military personnel can also be made on the basis of a survey of experts (one or several). When interviewing several experts, the corresponding indices for the department can be calculated using the above formula. An assessment of the moral and psychological state of the personnel of a subunit, unit may be an insufficient reason for the commander to make the right decision if this does not take into account the peculiarities of the subject of management of the moral and psychological state of the personnel. It is important to consider at least two circumstances:
The 1st moral and psychological state of downstream commanders, staffs, and management bodies, which should be assessed on the basis of the indicators proposed above;
2nd, the skills and abilities, the ability of the commander, the management body to effectively and competently manage social and socio-psychological processes in the subunit, unit, skillfully create and maintain the necessary moral and psychological attitude of the personnel, timely restore the lost fighting capacity of the personnel, conduct work and take measures to reduce psychological losses. At the same time, the authority of the commander, the governing body among subordinates and among higher authorities, and governing bodies acquires great importance.
The analysis and evaluation of the moral and psychological state is one of the main components of the general task of studying the personnel, working to improve its combat readiness and fighting efficiency.
The moral and psychological state and the human factor. Potential.
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