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Analysis of the results of psychological analysis of the 1st and 2nd periods of activity led to the following understanding of the generalized structure of the state of psychological readiness

It consists, as it were, of two motivated-volitional components: k-1 and k-2 k-1: motives of responsibility and duty, a state of confidence; K-2: motives of hostilities, a state of decisiveness. Moreover, the structure of the “state of confidence” is the motive for success; self-confidence, calculation; self-control; experiencing the state significance of the success of their activities. The structure of the “state of decisiveness” - risk motives, a clear, sustainable decision on the need for active hostilities in extreme situations; desire to implement the solution in spite of any difficulties; an experience of satisfaction from the opportunity to test oneself in a confrontation. Maintaining the state of psychological readiness is a kind of "swing of the pendulum": (k-1) <-> (k-2). The main indicators of the state of readiness are:

the result of the activity (task completed or not); assessment of actions (5,4,3,2) of a soldier by an expert, a higher commander; mistakes of actions, their nature, and reasons evaluated with the help of a psychologist; satisfaction with one's own activities; self-assessment of the formation of the components of the structure of the state of mental readiness ("k-1", "k-2"). Of particular interest are errors that occur unintentionally. It is advisable to determine for each specialist his "polygon of errors." "Typical mistakes" - most often characterize the level of military skill; atypical - are a reflection of different levels of preparedness for activity in a psychogenic situation. It is advisable to identify each leading specialist of his "training ground." Then, the psychologist and specialist, together, identify the causes of errors. Then decide what needs to be done to improve professional skills, to form and maintain a state of readiness of a serviceman for emergency action on combat duty. ary errors may be:



- violation of the sequence of work;

- pass action. operations;

- failure in actions;

- wrong decisions;

- lack of control over the work of subordinates, etc.



The “polygon of errors” their typical causes are largely carried out by the nature of the activity of a specialist of a particular type of Armed Forces. The most typical psychological causes of errors can be: the need to reconfigure the level of functioning of the psyche; search and selection of a behavioral strategy that is inadequate to the current situation; anxiety, fear , uncertainty; inability to take risks, make non-standard decisions; change in the “price of action” when responsibility increases many times); intellectual complexity in the face of time pressure; difficult interference environment; desire to get rid of overstrain, especially at the end of an activity;

the experience of partial failure, etc. The psychologist of the part, taking into account the specifics of the activities of a particular specialist on combat duty, the proposed system of indicators determines the levels of mental readiness of a given specialist for combat operations. After that, in the process of carrying out combat duty, they carry out diagnostics of levels and develop recommendations both for a specific stage of maintaining duty, and for the period of preparation for it. Possible methodology for determining the level of readiness.

The main directions and methods of activity of the military psychologist in order to maintain a state of mental readiness for active, immediate combat operations while on combat duty.

1. Taking into account the theater of operations, the specifics of external conditions, combat and combat training activities on combat duty in the form of the Armed Forces, with the participation of leading experts and a psychologist, creates “Psychological passports of possible combat situations” for each specialist, which indicates: (Appendix No. 2). code, name of the situation; features of the conditions of the task; an oriented basis for professional activities to accomplish this task; psychological stress in the dynamics of the actions performed; "possible range of errors", their professional and psychological reasons; training recommendations; recommendations for the formation and maintenance of mental readiness in action in this situation.

2. On the basis of the “Psychological passport“ the possibility of a combat situation, ”but with the same parameter in the unit, conduct a“ Combat (training-combat) operations registration card for a specific leading specialist ”(Appendix No. 3). Experts should take assessments of the activities of this specialist.

3. “Psychological passports of possible combat situations” are used: to determine the strategy and only both professional and psychological training (general, special, situational); as a "reference point" in the analysis of the activities of a particular specialist.

4. "The card of combat (training) combat actions of a specific specialist" is not a reporting document; they are compiled, analyzed only by a specific specialist and psychologist "!!! The part of the information for which a specialist’s permission is given can be transferred to a third party by a psychologist.
The “card”, the results reversible in it, is a topic for the subject interaction of a military psychologist and a specific specialist in order to increase the effectiveness of his professional activity and personal development. This “subject interaction” of the psychologist of the unit and the leading specialist, the recommendations adopted jointly constitute the core of the psychological support of combat duty, the activities of the military psychologist.

5. The main areas of joint activity of a military psychologist and a specific leading specialist: comparing the results of the “Psychological passport of a specific situation” and the “Card” of a specific specialist in the same situation; comparing the results of the same specialist in different situations according to the results of “cards”; comparing the results of one and the same specialist, in the same (close) situations, but obtained at different times. The result of the work: development of individual recommendations.

6. In order to make recommendations of the military psychologist to the command and the administrative apparatus, the generalized results of “cards” and “Passports” are used.

The structural components of a state of readiness are formed in the process of combat training.

Professional preparedness and state of mental readiness are closely interconnected. The first is the "material basis", the second is primarily the "state of confidence."

In the process of training, it is necessary to create conditions in order to handle the transition from the psychological component “k-1” to “k-2” and vice versa. A kind of "swing of the pendulum."

For the purpose of the most complete formation of the components of the “state of confidence”, training technologies based on the general psychological concept of P.Ya. Galperin, set forth in the articles of this manual by B.I. Khoziev and G.V. Gnezdilov, should be used.



Ideamotor training is one of the most effective means of professional and psychological preparation. Their basis is the “mental reproduction” of their actions in different situations. Moreover, the mental image of movements is necessarily associated with muscular-articular feeling, i.e. physical movements. When presenting, mastering the actions, it is necessary to mentally imagine him in that position in which it will actually be carried out. The ideomotor action must be so strong and clear that the soldier must involuntarily make movements. Ideomotor training is most often used in the process of carrying out combat duty.

An effective means of forming the ability to control your behavior is to master the methods of self-regulation. Group psychological training is a type of active teaching methods, the main advantages of which are: the unity of mastering specific knowledge of professional activity in interaction situations. Participants discover, often unexpectedly, the depth and complexity of the human psyche, “open their inner world”, they become meaningfully acquainted with the mechanism for developing a managerial decision. They recognize the connections and relationships, the interdependence between members of combat crews, and improve understanding. The participants in the group psychological training (GPT) can include both members of the same combat crew, and the shift as a whole. The training material for the GPT is possible combat situations. you’re talking about the main course of events (conditions and the goal), and the participants must determine the algorithm for solving it by each specialist as part of the calculation. GPT can be carried out with servicemen of the same specialty. The main thing here is the ability to “speak” the cumulative experience of both professional actions and the formation and maintenance of state mental readiness for action in different situations of being on alert Individual psychological training (NTP) - is carried out in order to master the individual formation scheme and under holding a state of mental readiness, as each serviceman has the content of components, the actualization mechanism may be his own. As a rule, a military psychologist and a specific soldier take part in creating the scheme.

Thus, it is possible to carry out special psychological training (see the article of the manual. P.Ya. Korchemny) according to the following scheme: immediately before

joining combat duty - NTP with the aim of updating the state of mental readiness, then ideomotor training to update professional action programs, after which direct work on simulators. Psychological education is the most important activity of a military psychologist. It can be directed: to clarify the impact of the conditions of bearing combat duty on the human psyche; to explain the psychological characteristics of the situation from the expectation of a combat signal to active hostilities and, on this basis, to convince the need for the formation and maintenance of a state of mental readiness; on the disclosure of the influence of psychogenic factors (danger, surprise, lack of time, lack of information, etc.); to show the psychological nature of activity difficulties and mistakes.

The rallying of combat crews and shifts is the fundamental activity of a military psychologist. The technology of this activity is presented in the manual.
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Analysis of the results of psychological analysis of the 1st and 2nd periods of activity led to the following understanding of the generalized structure of the state of psychological readiness

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