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Stages and features of the formation of a military collective
In the process of forming a military collective, several stages can be distinguished, each of which has its own content and pursues specific goals.
Stage 1 - the formation of a random group - the initial association of military personnel on the basis of their territorial proximity at a given time (for example, at an assembly point or a service meeting);
2nd stage - the formation of an unorganized group (nominal group, conglomerate), providing for the voluntary association of people on the basis of some coincidence of their interests, manifested in the course of short interpersonal contacts;
3rd stage - the formation of an organized group - the association of military personnel capable of effective joint action. She, in turn, is of several levels. [1, p.163; 10]
A low level (association) is an association based on an order (conscripts) or interest (chess lovers). As a part of such a group, as a rule, 7-12 people. The period of existence is from 3 to 5 days. After the specified time period, the association either ceases to exist, or moves to a higher level.
Intermediate level (cooperation) - it is characterized by a more conscious
activity and discipline. It arises, according to observations of military practice, 10-15 days after the establishment of interpersonal interaction. In the unit, as a rule, there are 2-3 groups of
3-6 military personnel, united, for example, on the basis of feelings that were actualized at the first time (fraternity).
A high level (autonomy) is characterized by a clear organized structure and discipline, internal unity of goals and motives of military professional activity.
The highest level of group association of people in Russian psychology, unlike most foreign schools, is usually called a collective. [7, p.227]
Observations of the formation of a number of military units allowed military psychologists to identify 4 main stages of the development of the collective.
1. The stage of social unity is the initial stage in the development of a military collective, which is characterized by the fact that most soldiers are conscious of service and discipline, clearly present their duties and goals, are guided by a unified system of spiritual values that does not contradict their personal orientations.
2. At the stage of military partnership, basically, the process of mutual study is completed, friendly relations between military personnel are established.
At this stage, you can already find a fairly stable structure of the team: collective opinion and mood, relationships and cohesion, discipline and collective habits. The leader, acting on these indicators, more effectively manages the team and each subordinate individually.
3. The stage of social maturity. The team achieves unity of the will of action, knowledge and beliefs, interests and value orientations. The interaction between the military is based on mutual assistance, mutual support, interchangeability and conflict-free. Military personnel make high demands on themselves, carefully study military equipment and weapons, and improve collective skills.
4. At the stage of self-government, the team understands its leader (commander, chief), as they say, at a glance and perceives its requirements as their own. At the same time, there is no need to control the actions of subordinates - this function is performed by the personal consciousness of a military man adapted to collective aspirations and the collective control of his colleagues. [3, p.32]
The considered stages of the development of a military collective are typical of collectives of all kinds. However, the pace of development may be different depending on the socio-psychological training of the leader, the individual characteristics of the military personnel, the nature of the tasks performed by the team. Consequently, the general laws governing the development of a military collective must be taken into account by the officer-head of the unit and specified in accordance with the prevailing conditions of his activity.
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