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Formation of a unified system for the training and education of officers in the Russian army (XVIII - first half of the XIX century)

The formation of the military educational system during the creation of the regular Russian army and navy was characterized by the following main features:

? firstly, military training was subordinated to a single goal formulated by Peter I as follows: “A soldier must be trained in how to act in battle”;

? secondly, the military training system consisted of two periods: the first - single training, the second - training as part of units;

? thirdly, field tactical exercises were introduced, as well as bilateral maneuvers, which created a “really like” situation.

The foundations of the officer’s educational activities were discipline, the strength of his character, his conscious attitude to military duty, and a personal example of serving the Fatherland. In the military charter of 1698, principles were enshrined that everyone should follow: the chief should be a model of morality and treat a soldier as a father to children; in a soldier to develop feelings of military honor, camaraderie, mutual support; rude, uncultured acts must not be allowed in behavior. The main meaning of the military oath, the text of which was contained in the "Military Code", which was enacted by order of Peter in 1716, consisted of demands to remain faithful to the tsar, "to repair obedience to commanders."

The moral element - “non-embarrassment” (moral and psychological qualities) was considered basic in the preparation of a soldier. Particular attention was paid to maintaining order and discipline in the troops. The system of discipline education included such methods as clarification of duties, personal example of the boss, reward and punishment, including corporal.
For loyal service and courage, Peter generously rewarded, and for cowardice, theft and other vices punished mercilessly. So, all surviving participants in the defense of Poltava were “granted” with silver medals and an annual salary. And the commandant of Poltava A.S. Kelin was granted from the colonels to brigadier generals and received from the hands of Peter I a "richly showered sovereign portrait". The cost of the diamond stones that adorned the portrait was a huge sum for those times - 873 rubles 33 kopecks.

The punishment system under Peter I was very severe. At the same time, the Russian army traditionally carried out a line to ensure that “military punishment” was “moderate” and combined “with a clear and concise interpretation of the error.” This influenced the ambitious Russian soldiers and officers more than cruelty.

An important element of the emerging system of training and education of lower ranks and officers became the ideas of Peter I about the unity of training and education, the dependence of education on practical tasks, the moral element in working with people, and education in the process of military activity.

Priority was given to the practical application of knowledge. To a certain extent, practice prevailed over theory, which was reflected in the development of all documents, including military pedagogical ones.

The practical experience of training military personnel was reflected in the regulations of the relevant charters, articles, instructions, and other legislative acts introduced by Peter I. Most of the documents developed during his reign have three aspects: the motivational part, the administrative-administrative part with legal norms, and the educational-tangential .
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Formation of a unified system for the training and education of officers in the Russian army (XVIII - first half of the XIX century)

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