home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Formation of a military psychology system at the stage of empirical development

The main periods of development of military psychology are considered:

1. Until 1917.

2. 1917 - 1941.

3. 1941 - 1945.

4. 1945 - our time, in which two sub-periods are distinguished:

- the first - 1945 - 1957

- the second - 1957 - our time.

The grounds for periodization are:

- changes in research issues depending on socio-cultural determination (on social order);

- increased state attention to military psychological research;

- change in the role, place, real status in the structure of psychological science;

- a change in the basis of scientific research, through which the scientist’s methodological principles are substantiated.

The following is distinguished in the Russian military psychological literature: the 9th century - the middle of the 19th century as a stage in the empirical development of military psychology, the middle of the 19th century and, to this day, the stage of scientific development.

Throughout empirical development, the initial stage, the stage of Peter's reforms and the stage of generals are distinguished. The empirical stage (in particular the initial one) is primarily descriptive. The subject of research is the external, sensually-perceived form of phenomena, and the phenomenon itself is considered as integral and indivisible (these are spiritual forces, soul - they cannot be measured as numbers, material conditions of victory).

At the empirical stage, the following ideas can be distinguished from the works of folklore.

Firstly, the beginning of the development of military psychological thought is the image of an epic hero - a warrior of a heroic squad, its qualities, motives, military skill, and features of military labor. They served for others as a criterion in assessment, a guideline in preparation, an example to follow in the struggle.

Psychological ideas in ancient Russian literature are reflected in the works: “The Word about Igor's Regiment” - “O my squad and brothers! Better to be killed than to be captured ... ”- in the appeal of Prince Igor to the soldiers before the battle. In the "Tale of Bygone Years", where the description of the campaign of Prince Oleg in IXX. such a psychological psychological reality as military cunning is revealed on Tsargrad. “The Teachings of Vladimir Monomakh” contains instructions that are military-psychological generalizations. In particular, - “Having gone out to war, do not be lazy, do not rely on the governor; neither indulge in drinking, nor in food, nor in sleeping; Dress the guards yourself, and at night, having set the guard on all sides, go to the soldiers near, and get up early ... ”

But such observations were single, they were not developed intentionally, intended for a narrow circle of users, therefore they were general, not specific.

Secondly, the generalization of psychological ideas occurs in connection with the growing need for them, the emergence of an ideal, the description of which was military-psychological ideas about the new look of a warrior (prince, priest), due to the development of military affairs. Note that in ancient Russian literature the names of the characters are mostly historical: Boris and Gleb, Theodosius Pechersky, Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry Donskoy, Sergey Radonezhsky. Who are they? These are princes, generals, priests, boyars, whose moral impact on people is enormous. These are patriots of the Russian land, defenders of the interests of the Russian state, people.
Therefore, in ancient Russian literature the first ideas about the spiritual side of the military business, ideas about the sources of victory over the enemy are embodied.

Thirdly, if until the middle of the 19th century the category “personality of a warrior” had more philosophical significance (its essence was expressed in the views of the advanced people of that time on the essence of military affairs: leaders, commanders, scientists, writers), then the military psychological thought developed , directly intertwined in the practice of training, leadership and combat activity of the troops, as a system of generalizations.

Most clearly these processes can be considered on the example of the formation of naval psychology, where the conceptual apparatus itself was a source of military psychological knowledge at all stages of the development of naval psychology. So, for example, the sea was considered as a specific natural environment, in the conditions of which the activities of naval sailors proceed. A warship - as a means of performing combat missions and as a technical means of training and combat activities. The crew and crew of the ship - as a social group and the subject of specific activities. The tactics and strategy of battle at sea is both a military art and a field of knowledge, as the activity of military sailors of various positions and professions, both in naval combat and in peacetime.

The specificity of their impact is manifested in the psychological impact of the sea element on the first sailors, associated with the danger of the activity itself in the conditions of a ship located thousands of miles from its native coast; the unusual effect of external environmental factors (for the first time the deck seems very unsteady, there is a certain timidity, fear and uncertainty); the habitability of personnel in a confined space ship; feature of the use of weapons. So, for example, the use of weapons on ships (ship guns had a caliber of 50 to 173 mm) required an expansion of the range of specialties of sailors, changes in the content of naval battles (refusal from boarding battles, transition to combat at a distance, etc.). The very fact of the constancy of the people around us on the ship caused certain mental phenomena: the uniformity of the same colleagues, the uniformity of communication, feelings, relationships, keen awareness of material restraint. All this required the development of knowledge of psychiatry and psychotherapy, which was the result of the introduction of priesthoods on ships, which made a certain contribution to the development of idealistic psychological ideas and played the role of psychotherapists in long trips.

Back in 1647, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich issued a charter “On Naval Military Science,” which laid down certain psychological ideas, in particular:

- separation of the functions of crew members responsible for the movement and survivability of the ship in the person of the shipbuilder and gunners responsible for firing;

- combining the responsibility of the commander for the ship and the training of the team, the division of duties and responsibilities of commanding officers;

- the lack of strict standardization of tactical conditions of the battle, the presentation of the right to independence and initiative;

- restriction of prohibitive measures and the lack of differentiation of rights in the division of responsibilities, that is, to serve not for fear, but for conscience.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Formation of a military psychology system at the stage of empirical development

  1. Formation of a military psychology system in Russia
    Science begins from the moment when the metaphysical, descriptive, and even more mythical explanation of the phenomena gives way to their natural-historical explanation, the study of the natural and social causes of their origin and development. In its development, military psychology in Russia went through the stage of empirical development (IX – beginning of the XIX century) and scientific development (mid XIX – early XX centuries).
  2. The development of military psychology in Russia until 1917
    Training issues: 1. Formation of a military psychology system in Russia at the stage of empirical development 2. Development of domestic military psychology at the end of 19th-beginning 20 Formation of a military psychology system in Russia at the stage of empirical development The main periods of the development of military psychology are considered: 1. Until 1917 . 2. 1917 - 1941. 3.1941 -
  3. The development of military psychology in Germany
    Military psychology in Germany was formed at the beginning of the twentieth century during the deployment of the aggressive military machine of the Kaiser empire. To solve political problems in the army, psychological science was involved. At various times, Wund's research on national psychology and Freud's research on biological sources of aggressiveness, as causes of war, Helmholtz, were used for military purposes.
  4. The development of military psychology in the United States
    Training issues: 1. Theoretical and organizational foundations of the development of military psychology in the United States. 2. The development of military psychology with the United States after the 2nd World War. Areas of research in the USA: World War I • psychological examination of recruits; • selection and classification of specialists; • military hearing problems; • military vision problems; • psychological
  5. Prerequisites for the formation of developmental psychology and developmental psychology into an independent area of ​​psychological science
    The design of developmental psychology (child or developmental psychology) as an independent branch of scientific knowledge dates back to the second half of the 19th century. Two directions were united, until that time developing in parallel and independent of each other. These are studies of child development that have been associated with science and medicine, as well as ethnographic studies of childhood and language, mainly
  6. Modern trends in the development of foreign military psychology (for example, USA)
    Military psychology in Western countries took shape as a science in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. and subsequently gained wide development in many directions. The historical aspect of the development of foreign military psychology until the 70s. extremely fully and deeply disclosed in the works of N. Fedenko and other domestic military psychologists. Due to the expansion of the subject area of ​​modern military psychology and
  7. The development of military psychology after the second world war
    Considering the great contribution of science to military affairs, in 1946, by the decision of the US Congress, a department for research of the Navy was created as the first federal organization in charge of scientific research. In 1946, within the framework of the American Psychological Association, a department of military psychology, or department 19, was formed. After that, psychology increasingly integrates with the military department, grows into the military
  8. Analysis of scientific and theoretical features of the development of military psychology in Germany
    Military psychology as a scientific discipline (science) is a product of the development of military psychological thought. Military psychology emerged in the late XIX and early XX centuries and went through a number of stages in its development. At the initial stage, preceding the First World War, military psychologists more theorized about the moral spirit, about its nature and ways of mobilization in war and in battle. As social
  9. Theoretical and organizational foundations of the development of military psychology in the United States
    Military psychology in the USA as a scientific discipline is a product of the development of psychological thought in the interests of military affairs. Military psychology is based on many concepts of psychological science that are widespread in the West. Initially, priority was given to behaviorism, justified for the practical use in training of soldiers and officers Miksha, Faynan and Marshall, who
  10. The emergence and development of military psychology
    Modern psychological science consists of many diverse industries, sections and directions that arose and formed in the process of development of psychological science. At the same time, it should be noted that throughout its history of development, psychological science has developed most rapidly during periods associated with the need to solve the problems of ensuring human activity in
  11. The emergence and development of military psychology
    Modern psychological science consists of many diverse industries, sections and directions that arose and formed in the process of development of psychological science. At the same time, it should be noted that throughout its history of development, psychological science has developed most rapidly during periods associated with the need to solve the problems of ensuring human activity in
  12. Prospects for the development of military psychology and ways of introducing its achievements into military practice
    The general prospects for the development of military psychology are its further integration in psychological science, the strengthening of scientific positions, the consolidation of the efforts of military psychologists to solve the problems associated with the psychological support of the activities of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, in justifying the need to create an independent psychological service in the interests of analysis and use of the latest
  13. The development of military psychology in England, Germany, France, Japan and Israel
    Training issues: 1. Analysis of the scientific and theoretical features of the development of military psychology in Germany 2. The main directions of the development of military psychology in England, France, Japan and Israel The main directions of psychological research in Germany during the years I MV: - the moral state of troops; - soldier behavior in battle; - the behavior of a soldier in the service; -
  14. Scientific and educational and psychotechnical components in the development of military psychology
    In the second half of the 1920s, a discussion was held on the relationship in behavior — psychological and political. Two directions in the development of military psychology were singled out: scientific-educational and psychotechnical. In 1924, a military scientific society was created, the work of which was aimed at developing the psychology of the military reader and audience, pedagogy and political work with
  15. DEVELOPMENT OF MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY IN THE USA
    DEVELOPMENT OF MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY IN
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com