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Frustration theory of aggression
In contrast to the purely theoretical concepts of attraction, the frustration theory, as presented in the 1939 monograph by Dollard and his co-authors, marked the beginning of intensive experimental studies of aggression. According to this theory, aggression is not an impulse that arises in the depths of the body, but is the result of frustration, that is, obstacles that arise in the way of targeted actions of the subject, or non-occurrence of the target state to which he aspired. The considered theory claims that, firstly, aggression is always a consequence of frustration and, secondly, frustration always entails aggression.
In the above formulation, both of these postulates were not confirmed. Not all aggression arises as a result of frustration (in particular, none of the forms of instrumental aggression is related to frustration. And not every frustration increases the level of desire for aggression (this does not happen, for example, if a person who has undergone frustration perceives it as unintended or as quite justified). The so-called catharsis hypothesis (we will discuss it separately), according to which aggressive behavior reduces the level of urge to aggression, is also not in all circumstances true.
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Frustration theory of aggression
- Theories of Aggression
There are three distinct groups of theories of aggression, which should be considered in the order in which they were created. These are theories of attraction (or instinct), the frustration theory of aggression and the theory of social learning (including attempts related to the psychology of motivation). Theories of attraction in modern psychology are considered obsolete, and lately this attitude
- Determinants of aggression
R. Baron and D. Richardson in their fundamental work “Aggression” identify four main determinants of aggression: social, external, individual and biological. The significance of social determinants is due to the fact that aggression itself "does not arise in a social vacuum." “Our aggressive behavior, write R. Baron and D. Richardson, is influenced by the presence and actions of other people from the social
- Experimental study of aggression
In the second half of the 50s, before the works of Bass [A. N. Buss, 1961] and Berkovittsa [L. Berkowitz, 1962], who stimulated laboratory experimental studies of aggression, made great efforts to measure, primarily TAT-based methods for individual differences of aggression, mainly the severity of its positive and negative tendencies [see: S. Feshbach, 1970, p.
- Manifestations of aggression and moral norms
Achieving subsequent levels of cognitive development, ensuring the adoption of roles and taking into account the intentions of another person, is also one of the prerequisites of the process that can play a crucial role in regulating hostile aggression and its containment, namely the process of empathy (empathy) to the victim's position of their aggressive aspirations. Ability and willingness to empathize have on
- Favorable aggression key stimuli
Features of the context affect the assessment of the situation, indicating to the subject what meaning should be attributed to it (attributed). One of the examples of their role is the so-called weapon effect [L. Berkowitz, A. Le'Page, 1967]. If there is a weapon in the laboratory room, then the test subject’s aggressiveness will increase, but only if his aggressive motivation is updated. In other words, to key
- Aggression as a goal of action: catharsis hypothesis
Aristotle attributed the cathartic effect to his modern tragedies. Reproduced on the stage of affects, such as fear and compassion, should have ennobled the similar affects of empathizing viewers and the latter to release them from these affects. Subsequently, the concept of catharsis was picked up by Freud and Breuer, who used it in their study of hysteria [S. Freud, J. Breuer,
- Waiting for the achievement of the goal of aggression and retribution for aggressive behavior
As long as the subject has the capacity to commit direct aggression, the realization of which is not difficult, the expectation of the likelihood of harming the victim and thereby achieving the goal of aggressive action plays a minor role. This expectation acquires essential significance only in the case that has not yet been practically studied, when the response aggression of the subject cannot reach the initiator.
- Causes of aggression in childhood
In recent years, scientific interest in child aggression has increased significantly. They continue to be shocked by the news that children slaughter each other to death. A significant increase in aggressive children is one of the most acute problems not only for teachers and psychologists, but also for society as a whole. In addition, an aggressive child creates a lot of problems not only to others, but also to himself.
- Theoretical approaches to the concept of aggression
In everyday language, the word "aggression" means a variety of actions that violate the physical or mental integrity of another person (or group of people), cause him material damage, interfere with the implementation of his intentions, oppose his interests or lead to his destruction. This kind of antisocial connotation forces us to refer to the same category as
- Electrophysiological markers of sympathetic catecholamine aggression
According to the personal experience of the author of this abstract review, some electroencephalographic phenomena can be electrophysiological expression and a marker of sympathetic catecholamine aggression. For example, hypersynchronous beta-1 oscillations may be due to the inhibition by sympathetic catecholamines of the GABAergic inhibitory interneurons of layer III of the cortex, followed as spontaneous
- Social learning theory
The concepts of aggression, developed in line with the theories of social learning, are derived from the theoretical concepts of the SR-type (primarily from Hull): in them the components of behavior responsible for its motivation and direction are determined in different ways and in different ways. The most influential representatives of this movement are Berkovitts and Bandura. Originally
- Theory of cognitive dissonance
We learned how installations go into behavior, but it happens that the behavior goes into installation. The most influential description of such a sequence of events was the theory of cognitive dissonance proposed by Leon Festinger. As with all theories of cognitive consonance, this theory implies that a person needs cognitive consistency; two cognitions not
- Feminist theory
The term "feminism" (from the Latin. Femina - woman) was first used by Alice Rossi in 1895. Currently, there are many definitions of feminism. Often, feminism is understood as the theory of gender equality that underlies the movement of women for liberation. Most often, it is interpreted more broadly - as different kinds of actions in defense of women's rights, based on the notions of legal equality of the sexes (in this
- Neural theory
Under the neural theory understand the general theory of the structure of the nervous tissue, according to which the entire nervous system consists of a huge number of structural units - neurons, connected into various more or less complex complexes. Neural theory was formulated in 1891 by Waldeyer and was further developed in the works of Ramon-i-Kahal, Waller and many other morphologists and physiologists.
- "Theory of Installation" D. N. Uznadze
An important direction in Soviet psychology was the “theory of set”, founded by the Georgian psychologist Dmitry N. Uznadze (1886-1950). D. N. Uznadze considered psychology as a science of a holistic personality, whose motives and actions may be unconscious (his approach to the unconscious for a long time determined domestic developments in this direction). Any behavior by
- Theory of teaching children.
The theory of learning is fundamentally different from the theory of knowledge, as it concerns the formation of adaptive human behavior. The main postulate (principle) of the theory of learning says: human behavior is the result of external influences. Changes in external conditions and even artificial manipulations with the external environment lead to a regular change in behavior, if it is poorly adapted to these
- Social identity theory
Brewer (1990) believes that a person has two opposite needs: to confirm his resemblance to other people and to preserve his own individuality. According to Brevera, we want to look like others and at the same time be different from them. Dividing people into members of one’s own and other’s groups helps one to achieve both goals. That we have something in common with other members of our group,
- Cultural-historical theory of L. S. Vygotsky
One of the most important areas that emerged in the 20-30s was the “cultural-historical theory” developed by Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). Despite the fact that a number of its provisions have been and are being criticized, including by the followers of L. S. Vygotsky, his main ideas are being developed productively now, and these ideas are now embodied not only in
- CELL THEORY
As a result of a huge number of microscopic studies in the XVII — XVIII centuries. accumulated a wealth of factual material about the structure of plant and animal organisms. However, the metaphysical way of thinking inherent in feudalism that prevailed at that time did not contribute to the theoretical generalizations of these facts. Considering nature as an accidental accumulation of objects created