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Team leadership

It is believed that leadership is the ability to influence both an individual and a group, directing their efforts to achieve their goals. This is a natural socio-psychological process, built on the influence of a person’s personal authority on the behavior of all members of a group or a certain part of it. Moreover, under the influence is understood such actions of a person that make a change in the behavior, relationships and feelings of another person. It can be provided through ideas, spoken and written word, suggestion, persuasion, emotional infection, coercion, personal authority or example.

Any group that solves a problem significant to it always puts forward a leader for its solution, which can be defined as a person who can unite people in order to achieve any goal. Consequently, the concept of “leader” acquires meaning only with the concept of “goal”. Moreover, its presence is always the presence of at least one follower. The role of a leader is the ability to lead people along, to ensure the existence of such connections in the system of interpersonal relationships that would contribute to solving specific problems within the framework of a single goal. Thus, the leader is an element of streamlining the system of human interaction.

Whether an officer is suitable for the role of a leader depends, first of all, on recognition by him of other subordinates of the qualities of superiority, inspiring them with faith in him and encouraging him to recognize his influence on himself. Natural leadership - when the influence comes from the recognition by other members of the group (collective) of the personal superiority of the leader. Moreover, it is important not that the officer possesses the qualities of superiority, but that his subordinates recognize the possession of these qualities.

Very often, the influence of a leader depends on the situation. Higher intelligence, training, or experience can only be a partial basis for leadership. The tendency to domination is usually crucial, namely, the ability to take initiative in interpersonal relationships, direct the attention of others, offer them solutions, and the ability to speak their language. In this case, the role of the leader of the military team is to translate the views of their supporters into an agreed program of action.

At the same time, the point of view of a number of Russian military psychologists should be taken into account that the general leadership in the group consists of three components - emotional, business and intellectual. An emotional leader (“the soul of a group”) is a person to whom each member of the team can turn for sympathy. He works well with a business leader ("group hands"), he can organize a business, establish the necessary business relationships, and ensure the success of a business. Everyone turns to the intellectual leader (the "brain of the group") because he is a scholar, knows everything, can explain or help find the information he needs. Naturally, the leader that combines all three components will be the best, but such universality is extremely rare. Most often, a combination of two components is manifested, for example, emotional and business, information and business, etc.

Five types of leaders are distinguished in domestic psychology, depending on the prevailing functions implemented in the activity.

Leader of the organizer. Its main difference is that it perceives the needs of the collective as its own and actively acts accordingly. He is optimistic and confident that most of the problems are completely solvable. He knows how to persuade, he is inclined to encourage, and if it is necessary to express his disapproval, he does it without hitting someone else's personal dignity. They follow him, knowing that he will not offer an empty case. It is such officers who are visible in any informal group.

Creator Leader. It attracts, first of all, the ability to see new things, to tackle problems that may seem insoluble and even dangerous. He does not command, but only invites to discuss the problem or ways to solve the problem, can put it in such a way that it will interest and attract subordinates.

Leader-wrestler. Strong-willed, self-confident person. The first to meet danger or suspense, without hesitation, he enters into the fight against factors that impede his subordinates, he is ready to defend what

believes and is not inclined to concessions. However, such an officer sometimes does not have enough time to think through all his actions and foresee everything.
The Madness of the Brave is his leadership style.

Leader diplomat. If he used his abilities for evil,

then he could be called a master of intrigue. He relies on excellent knowledge of the situation and its hidden details, in the course of gossip and gossip, and therefore knows well who and how to influence. Prefers confidential meetings in the circle of like-minded subordinates. Allows you to openly say what everyone knows in order to divert attention from their unfinished plans. True in a military team of this kind

"diplomacy" often only compensates for the inability to lead in more decent ways.

Leader Comforter. He is drawn to because he is ready to support in difficult times. Respects people, treats them kindly. Polite, helpful, empathic.

In foreign psychology, there is a fairly wide variety of approaches to the typology of leaders, but the most popular is psychoanalytic. Z. Freud considered leadership as a two-pronged psychological process: on the one hand, group, and on the other, individual. It is based on the ability of leaders to attract people to themselves, unconsciously evoke a sense of admiration, adoration, love. The worship of people of the same personality can make it a leader.

Psychoanalysts identify ten types of leadership.

1. “Sovereign” or “patriarchal leader” appears to them in the image of a strict but beloved father (mother), who is able to suppress or supplant negative emotions and inspire confidence in people.

2. "Leader". In it, people see the concentration of their desires, corresponding to a certain group standard. The leader’s personality is the bearer of these standards, so they try to imitate him in the group.

3. "Tyrant". He becomes a leader only because he inspires others with a sense of obedience and unaccountable fear. He is considered strong. The tyrant leader is a dominant, authoritarian personality. He is usually afraid and submissively humble.

4. "Organizer". He acts for the group as a force to maintain the "I-concept" and to satisfy the needs of everyone, relieves people of guilt and anxiety. Such a leader unites people.

5. The Seducer. Such a person becomes a leader, playing on other people's weaknesses. It acts as a "magical power", giving an outlet to the suppressed emotions of other people, prevents conflicts, and relieves tension. Such a leader is adored and often does not notice his individual, even significant, shortcomings.

6. "Hero". Sacrifices himself for others. This type is manifested especially in situations of group protest - thanks to his courage, others are guided by him, see in him the standard of justice. The leader-hero carries away other people of the group.

7. "Bad example." It acts as a source of contagiousness for a conflict-free personality, emotionally infects others.

8. "The idol." It attracts, attracts, positively infects the environment.

He is loved, idolized, idealized.

The two following types of leaders, according to the psychoanalytic approach (“Outcast” and “Scapegoat”) are essentially anti-leaders, since they are the object of aggressive tendencies due to which group emotions develop. Often a group unites to fight the anti-leader, but as soon as it disappears, the group can begin to break up, since the general group stimulus has disappeared.

Unlike foreign approaches, Russian military psychology also distinguishes between the so-called “formal” and “informal” leadership. In the first case, the influence comes from the official position in the organizational structure of the unit, and in the second - from the recognition by the military personnel of the personal superiority of one of them. An informal leader is nominated "from below", while a formal leader (for example, a commander or chief) is officially appointed to manage the unit.

It must be borne in mind that the psychology of the military collective is extremely diverse in its content and forms of manifestation.

At the same time, certain generalized characteristics are inherent in it, which allow the officer (formal leader) to judge her orientation, content and development levels.
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Team leadership

  1. Negative leadership in primary military collectives
    The interaction of servicemen of various periods of service in primary military collectives is a natural process. developing taking into account individual and group differences of warriors. Interpersonal relations of military personnel is carried out in the military-professional, public and domestic sphere of military activity. The level of development of personal qualities, the degree of adaptation and
  2. Leader. Leadership. Guide
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  3. Concept and types of leadership
    A leader (from the English leader - leader) is a member of a group, for whom she recognizes the right to make responsible decisions in situations significant for her [14, P.98]. In any group, its members exhibit a different level of activity, sociability, intelligence, social maturity, etc. Strong personalities set the tone at meetings, parties; adapt to the general mood of the group, successfully improvise.
  4. Features of the development of negative leadership in military units
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  5. Leadership in primary military groups
    Primary Military Leadership
  6. Course work. Socio-psychological relations in military groups, 2011
    Discipline: Psychology of groups and leadership. Basic socio-psychological concepts of the group. Leadership in primary military groups. The main directions and tasks of the psychological research of the military team. Questionnaire survey as a method of studying socio-psychological processes in military groups. Applications: Diagnosis of individual psychological characteristics (Test "Non-existent
  7. The concept of "team psychology"
    In essence, the psychology of the collective is those immediate psychological reactions that are formed as a result of interpersonal interactions of military personnel with other members of the collective and fixed as universally recognized. In other words, this is a complex of psychological problems arising in the process of communication, life together, official, duty, combat, and any other activity
  8. The structure of the military team
    In military units there is a wide variety of grassroots (primary) teams. The structure of their psychology has a lot in common. At the same time, they all differ from each other. This is explained by the fact that military collectives solve various problems, have their own military professional features (for example, depending on the structural unit - the combat unit, crew, coastal unit, etc.).
  9. Psychology of the military team
    The psychology of a military collective is a complex totality of intra-collective socio-psychological phenomena and processes, one of the aspects of its spiritual life. It is the result of the unification, summation of the psychology of individuals - members of this team. The following most important components in the structure of the psychology of a military collective should be distinguished: public (collective)
  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF FORMATION OF A COLLECTIVE
    Starting consideration of the basic principles of the psychology of a military collective (group), it is necessary to proceed from the fact that the people who make them are socio-biological phenomena of an objectively existing world. Their social component is formed as a result of interaction with other people. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms of formation and functioning of a collective is impossible
  11. The impact of relationships on the functioning of the team
    At first glance, it seems that the better the relationship in the team, the higher should be the effectiveness of individual and joint activities. However, studies show that this is not always true. Improving team relationships to a certain level helps to increase the effectiveness of collective activities. If the degree of mutual sympathy exceeds this level, then
  12. KEY MENTAL PHENOMENA IN THE TEAM
    The whole variety of phenomena that fill the ideological and psychological atmosphere of the ship’s crew, units, subunits, depending on the predominance of certain components and patterns in them, can be divided into: • ideological-cognitive and • emotional-volitional_ Ideological-cognitive phenomena - leading in the team. They determine the main content of emotional-volitional processes. IN
  13. Psychological features of the relationship in military groups
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  14. . The structure and features of the shipboard crew
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  15. STRUCTURE AND FEATURES OF THE SHIPPING COLLECTIVE
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  16. The role of public opinion in the military team
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  17. The concept and essence of the military team
    The writings of the classics of pedagogy contain provisions that the team presents the greatest opportunities for the development of individual personality abilities. Collective - a concept of Latin origin, meaning "composure", i.e. integrity that preserves the integrity of the individual. The concept of a group is identical to the meaning of the old Russian word "circle". At the heart of both
  18. The principles of formation of military collectives, units
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