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It is believed that leadership is the ability to influence both an individual and a group, directing their efforts to achieve their goals. This is a natural socio-psychological process, built on the influence of a person’s personal authority on the behavior of all members of a group or a certain part of it. Moreover, under the influence is understood such actions of a person that make a change in the behavior, relationships and feelings of another person. It can be provided through ideas, spoken and written word, suggestion, persuasion, emotional infection, coercion, personal authority or example.
Any group that solves a problem significant to it always puts forward a leader for its solution, which can be defined as a person who can unite people in order to achieve any goal. Consequently, the concept of “leader” acquires meaning only with the concept of “goal”. Moreover, its presence is always the presence of at least one follower. The role of a leader is the ability to lead people along, to ensure the existence of such connections in the system of interpersonal relationships that would contribute to solving specific problems within the framework of a single goal. Thus, the leader is an element of streamlining the system of human interaction.
Whether an officer is suitable for the role of a leader depends, first of all, on recognition by him of other subordinates of the qualities of superiority, inspiring them with faith in him and encouraging him to recognize his influence on himself. Natural leadership - when the influence comes from the recognition by other members of the group (collective) of the personal superiority of the leader. Moreover, it is important not that the officer possesses the qualities of superiority, but that his subordinates recognize the possession of these qualities.
Very often, the influence of a leader depends on the situation. Higher intelligence, training, or experience can only be a partial basis for leadership. The tendency to domination is usually crucial, namely, the ability to take initiative in interpersonal relationships, direct the attention of others, offer them solutions, and the ability to speak their language. In this case, the role of the leader of the military team is to translate the views of their supporters into an agreed program of action.
At the same time, the point of view of a number of Russian military psychologists should be taken into account that the general leadership in the group consists of three components - emotional, business and intellectual. An emotional leader (“the soul of a group”) is a person to whom each member of the team can turn for sympathy. He works well with a business leader ("group hands"), he can organize a business, establish the necessary business relationships, and ensure the success of a business. Everyone turns to the intellectual leader (the "brain of the group") because he is a scholar, knows everything, can explain or help find the information he needs. Naturally, the leader that combines all three components will be the best, but such universality is extremely rare. Most often, a combination of two components is manifested, for example, emotional and business, information and business, etc.
Five types of leaders are distinguished in domestic psychology, depending on the prevailing functions implemented in the activity.
Leader of the organizer. Its main difference is that it perceives the needs of the collective as its own and actively acts accordingly. He is optimistic and confident that most of the problems are completely solvable. He knows how to persuade, he is inclined to encourage, and if it is necessary to express his disapproval, he does it without hitting someone else's personal dignity. They follow him, knowing that he will not offer an empty case. It is such officers who are visible in any informal group.
Creator Leader. It attracts, first of all, the ability to see new things, to tackle problems that may seem insoluble and even dangerous. He does not command, but only invites to discuss the problem or ways to solve the problem, can put it in such a way that it will interest and attract subordinates.
Leader-wrestler. Strong-willed, self-confident person. The first to meet danger or suspense, without hesitation, he enters into the fight against factors that impede his subordinates, he is ready to defend what
believes and is not inclined to concessions. However, such an officer sometimes does not have enough time to think through all his actions and foresee everything.
The Madness of the Brave is his leadership style.
Leader diplomat. If he used his abilities for evil,
then he could be called a master of intrigue. He relies on excellent knowledge of the situation and its hidden details, in the course of gossip and gossip, and therefore knows well who and how to influence. Prefers confidential meetings in the circle of like-minded subordinates. Allows you to openly say what everyone knows in order to divert attention from their unfinished plans. True in a military team of this kind
"diplomacy" often only compensates for the inability to lead in more decent ways.
Leader Comforter. He is drawn to because he is ready to support in difficult times. Respects people, treats them kindly. Polite, helpful, empathic.
In foreign psychology, there is a fairly wide variety of approaches to the typology of leaders, but the most popular is psychoanalytic. Z. Freud considered leadership as a two-pronged psychological process: on the one hand, group, and on the other, individual. It is based on the ability of leaders to attract people to themselves, unconsciously evoke a sense of admiration, adoration, love. The worship of people of the same personality can make it a leader.
Psychoanalysts identify ten types of leadership.
1. “Sovereign” or “patriarchal leader” appears to them in the image of a strict but beloved father (mother), who is able to suppress or supplant negative emotions and inspire confidence in people.
2. "Leader". In it, people see the concentration of their desires, corresponding to a certain group standard. The leader’s personality is the bearer of these standards, so they try to imitate him in the group.
3. "Tyrant". He becomes a leader only because he inspires others with a sense of obedience and unaccountable fear. He is considered strong. The tyrant leader is a dominant, authoritarian personality. He is usually afraid and submissively humble.
4. "Organizer". He acts for the group as a force to maintain the "I-concept" and to satisfy the needs of everyone, relieves people of guilt and anxiety. Such a leader unites people.
5. The Seducer. Such a person becomes a leader, playing on other people's weaknesses. It acts as a "magical power", giving an outlet to the suppressed emotions of other people, prevents conflicts, and relieves tension. Such a leader is adored and often does not notice his individual, even significant, shortcomings.
6. "Hero". Sacrifices himself for others. This type is manifested especially in situations of group protest - thanks to his courage, others are guided by him, see in him the standard of justice. The leader-hero carries away other people of the group.
7. "Bad example." It acts as a source of contagiousness for a conflict-free personality, emotionally infects others.
8. "The idol." It attracts, attracts, positively infects the environment.
He is loved, idolized, idealized.
The two following types of leaders, according to the psychoanalytic approach (“Outcast” and “Scapegoat”) are essentially anti-leaders, since they are the object of aggressive tendencies due to which group emotions develop. Often a group unites to fight the anti-leader, but as soon as it disappears, the group can begin to break up, since the general group stimulus has disappeared.
Unlike foreign approaches, Russian military psychology also distinguishes between the so-called “formal” and “informal” leadership. In the first case, the influence comes from the official position in the organizational structure of the unit, and in the second - from the recognition by the military personnel of the personal superiority of one of them. An informal leader is nominated "from below", while a formal leader (for example, a commander or chief) is officially appointed to manage the unit.
It must be borne in mind that the psychology of the military collective is extremely diverse in its content and forms of manifestation.
At the same time, certain generalized characteristics are inherent in it, which allow the officer (formal leader) to judge her orientation, content and development levels.
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