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Methods of studying intra-group and interpersonal relations in a military team

Using the test methods presented in this appendix, one can reveal various aspects of interpersonal relationships - social behavior, individual characteristics of group members, compatibility of partners, psychological climate in the team.



1. The methodology for identifying the sociometric structure of the group



A conceptual description of the characteristic. The sociometric structure of the group carries important information about the nature of interpersonal relationships in the group. Knowing such a structure, we can answer the questions: Who is the informal leader of the group? What is the distribution of statuses? What is the emotional cohesion of the group? Who prefers whom in communication? Through whom is it better to influence a particular student? etc.

Polling procedure. A sociometric warm-up is carried out, the purpose of which is to establish psychological contact with the subjects. After that, they explain the meaning of the survey, read out the instructions and make the necessary explanations.

Each member of the group is given a list of the group and a questionnaire with instructions and two criteria for emotional content such as: 1. Which group do you communicate with or would like to communicate in your free time? 2. Which member of the group are you least likely to communicate with or least of all would like to chat in your free time?

Processing Results:

1. According to the data of the questionnaires, a sociometric matrix is ​​filled by the criterion of emotional gravitation.

2. The number of positive (“+”) choices for each member of the group is calculated. It is equal to the number of “+” choices in each column of the matrix.

3. The number of positive “+” points for each participant is calculated. For the first choice, the subject is assigned 2 points, for the second - 1 point, for all subsequent elections - 0.5 points.

4. The number of rejections (“-“) of the election for each participant is calculated.

5. The number of points for rejections “-“ for each participant is calculated (points are assigned similarly to points for positive elections only with a “-“ sign).

6. If the application of the five listed criteria for unambiguous determination of the status is insufficient, then use as an additional serial number of the participant in the alphabetical list. So, for example, if two or more participants have the same values, then the participant with the lower place in the list is the group with the higher place.

7. A sociogram is being built. It is a graphic representation of emotional (usually) relationships between group members. In the diagram, group members are symbolically (ciphered), their choices and the direction of these choices are indicated (arrows).

8. The value of the indicator of emotional cohesion of the group is determined:



C = N? / [N (N - 1)],



where C is the emotional cohesion of the group; N? - the number of mutual elections in the group; N is the number of group members; N (N - 1) - the total possible number of mutual elections in the group.



QUESTIONNAIRE



Instructions: Dear comrade! In order to improve the psychological climate and increase the effectiveness of training, we ask you to participate in the survey. We remind you that the quality of our recommendations will completely depend on the sincerity and accuracy of your answers.

Here is a list of the group in alphabetical order. To the left of each surname is a number that is the code of the corresponding student in your group.
Select 5 people from the list in order of preference (or rejection) and indicate their codes in the boxes below the question. We guarantee non-disclosure of your answers (see table).



1. Which of the group do you most often communicate with or would like to chat in your free time?

2. Which member of the group are you least likely to communicate with, or least of all, would like to talk from class time?



Thank you for your active participation in the survey!



Group code ____________ Fill date ________________

Full Name________________



Sociometric matrix example



2. The methodology for determining the psychological climate in the group



The psychological climate at an emotional level reflects the existing relationships, the nature of business cooperation, and attitude to significant life phenomena.

For a general assessment of some of the main manifestations of the psychological climate of the team, you can use the diagram below, where the qualities of the team that characterize a favorable psychological climate are described on the left side of the sheet, and the qualities of the team with a clearly unfavorable climate on the right. The severity of certain qualities can be determined using a seven-point scale placed in the center of the sheet (from +3 to -3).

Using the diagram, you should first read the sentence on the left, then on the right, and then mark with the “+” sign in the middle part of the sheet that grade that most corresponds to the truth. It should be borne in mind that estimates mean:

+3 - the property indicated on the left is always manifested in the team;

+2 - the property manifests itself often enough;

+1 - the property appears, but rarely;

0 - neither this, nor the opposite (indicated on the right) properties are manifested clearly enough or both manifest themselves to the same extent;

-1 - quite often the opposite property appears (indicated on the right);

-2 - the property is manifested in most cases;

-3 - the property is always manifested.





To present the general picture of the psychological climate of the team, it is necessary to add up all the positive and negative points. The result obtained can serve as a conditional characteristic of the psychological climate of a greater or lesser degree of favorableness.



However, a simpler assessment is also possible - through periodic measurement of emotional states using the created color-painting technique, in which students are asked to choose what color they associate with staying in a given team, situational mood, etc. (etc. - because the possibilities of the so-called “color tests” are very large, but they cannot be revealed here). The following colors are used: red - enthusiastic mood; orange is joyful; yellow - light, pleasant; green - calm, balanced; purple - anxious, tense; black - discouragement, complete disappointment, loss of strength.
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Methods of studying intra-group and interpersonal relations in a military team

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