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GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF WORK

The relevance and formulation of the problem of dissertation research. Radical transformations of all spheres of vital activity of Russian society, the country's transition to new economic foundations, the transformation of the Armed Forces, carried out in difficult socio-economic conditions, cause a significant increase in a number of problems associated with the reform of society and the army.

The reduction of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation creates an acute social problem related to the adaptation to new conditions of life and activities of citizens dismissed from military service and found themselves in the labor market. Most of the dismissed military personnel are in working age and have a high educational level. They are ready to realize their potential in civilian conditions, to become an important pillar of economic reforms, but in most cases, educated and able-bodied citizens for a number of reasons turn out to be unclaimed in the labor market and fall into the social risk group.

The situation of regular military personnel is complicated by a number of circumstances:

- those discharged from military service have to radically change all spheres of their vital activity (professional, domestic, social and psychological) already at a mature age, which often leads to the emergence of frustrating situations and experiencing conflicts;

- unlike those who lost their jobs in civilian life, a significant part of those discharged from military service, or does not have civilian specialty, or during the service received highly specialized military professional training;

- The position of professional military personnel (officers and ensigns) dismissed from military service on the labor market aggravates their age, as employers today prefer young specialists;

- a fairly high level of education and professional qualifications of servicemen discharged into the reserve does not correspond to the profile of civilian specialties.

These circumstances exacerbate intrapersonal and interpersonal conflicts, lead to problems in the family, contribute to the development of various psychological abnormalities (alcoholism, depression), often requiring medical intervention.

Therefore, the current situation requires the development and implementation of a number of radical measures, primarily to change the social status of servicemen and their families, enshrined in law, on the priority development of social work with them in a closed military society, to find and use the potential of not only state and departmental social policy in relation to this specific group of the population, but also in the implementation of specific practical measures for the psychological support of the transition of military personnel to azhdansky life.

The relevance of the topic of this study is also due to the following:

- the urgent need to further develop the theory of psychological adaptation of various categories of citizens to crisis socio-economic and political living conditions;

- the dynamics of changes in the mental state of military personnel after their dismissal from military service and the task of forming an adequate attitude among former military personnel to the need to adapt to new conditions of life activity;

- the need for in-depth analysis and assessment of the role of the adaptation potential of servicemen discharged into the reserve;

- the increased practical significance of the psychological and pedagogical training of servicemen in the process of adaptation to civilian life.

Of particular relevance to the problem is the fact that the occurrence of a socio-psychological adaptation to the conditions of the civil environment that are new for servicemen after the end of military service requires maximum activity from the individual.

The state of scientific elaboration of the research problem.

Theoretical and methodological foundations of research on adaptation, personality reflected in domestic science in the late 60s - mid 70s n. XX. In the works of D.A. Andreeva, S.D. Artyomova, T.G. Dicheva, I.A. Miloslavova, L.M. Rastovoy, E.V. Rustle and a number of others.

In the late 70s - early 80s. in the scientific works of G.A. Goroshidze, N.A. Ershova, I. Kalaikova, S.V. Kineleva, N.E. Shafazhinsky investigated the issues of ideological and epistemological nature, the problems of the general theory of adaptation and the biosocial nature of man. Significantly reveals the main aspects of the problem of psychological adaptation of the individual and its laws in various activities, in studies A.A. Aldasheva, T.V. Barlas, L.M. Wildavskaya, M.A. Dmitrieva, M.A. Ivanova and N.A. Tishovoy. An attempt to create a unified theory of social and psychological personality adaptation was undertaken in the monograph by A.A. Nalchajyan (1988).

In domestic military science, certain aspects of the adaptation of servicemen were considered in the works of A.V. Barabanschikova, A.D. Glotochkina, L.F. Zheleznyak, V.L. Marischuk, V.F. Perevalova, Ya.V. Podolyak, E.P. Utlika, N.F. Fedenko and others. Special studies of the problems of adaptation of various categories of servicemen to the conditions of service in the army were carried out by military pedagogue S. Kabele (1975), military sociologists L.G. Egorov (1976), A.S. Stradanchenkov (1994), military psychologists V.Ya. Jablonko (1982), J.G. Senokosov (1989), V.I. Buyanov (1996). From the standpoint of psychological science, certain aspects of the adaptation of servicemen discharged into the reserve were also studied.

The socialization of the reserve servicemen as a socio-psychological problem was considered in his dissertation by Yu.V. Medvedev (1994). Thesis B.E. Shelest (1997) is dedicated to the social adaptation of reserve officers. The socio-pedagogical conditions for the adaptation of former servicemen and their family members are explored in I.G. Skorokhodova (1998) and I.V. Dmitrieva (1999).

However, the conducted studies do not allow to see the adaptation of former personnel servicemen as part of the holistic process of formation and development of their personality, their mastering of the whole variety of social relations associated with military service and its completion, and do not fully solve all the issues of modern psychological practice of training retired military personnel to civilian life.

Thus, the problem of this study is to determine the role of the adaptation potential of the individual in the psychological preparation for civilian life of servicemen discharged into the reserve. The solution to this problem is the purpose of the study.

The object of the research is the military personnel who are dismissed from the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

The subject of the study is the adaptation potential in the psychological preparation for civilian life of servicemen discharged to the reserve.

In accordance with the goal, the object and subject of the research, a number of assumptions were put forward that acted as the hypotheses of the research:

- the success of adaptation to the conditions of civilian life can be ensured through targeted psychological and pedagogical training of servicemen discharged into the reserve;

- the system of psychological preparation can be built if the degree of the person’s adaptation capabilities is identified through an assessment of the level of development of psychological characteristics most significant for the regulation of mental activity and adaptation processes;

- psychological personality traits are interrelated and constitute one of the integral characteristics of the mental development of a person's adaptive potential; the actualization of this potential is the essence of the psychological preparation of servicemen to the conditions of civilian life.

The set hypotheses and goal necessitated the following tasks:

1. On the basis of the theoretical and methodological analysis of the problem of adaptation, to trace the genesis, strategies and mechanisms of the adaptation process of servicemen discharged into the reserve.

2. Investigate the features of the dynamics of servicemen discharged into the reserve.

3. To identify the adaptive capabilities of the individual through the assessment of the level of development of psychological characteristics, the most significant for the regulation of mental activity and the process of adaptation to civilian life.

4. To analyze and evaluate the role of the adaptation potential of servicemen in the adaptation process.

5. Using the methods of statistical analysis to assess the degree of influence of factors of the socio-cultural environment on the personal adaptation potential.

6. Build a model of psychological preparation for civilian life of servicemen discharged into the reserve, and show the ways of its practical implementation.

The methodological basis of the study was ideas about the active nature of the interaction between the individual and the social environment (L. S. Vygotsky, A. V. Petrovsky), the unity of consciousness and activity (A. N. Leontyev S. L. Rubinstein), mental functions in context. personal formations (KK Platonov), the subject of mental activity (B. G. Ananiev A. V. Brushlinsky, B. F. Lomov), as well as personal, social and activity approaches (A. V. Barabanshchikov, L. F. Zheleznyak, NF Fedenko)

The theoretical basis of the study was the works of domestic and foreign scientists, which examine the scientific foundations of the psychology of personality and social groups (KA Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, AG Asmolov, AB Orlov), ideas about the integrity of individuality and personality (V .V. Stolin, AB Orlov), the study of value-semantic orientations and spiritual and moral foundations of personality (G.M.
Andreeva, A. Maslow), the essence of socio-psychological processes (F. Alexander, G. E. Zhuravlev, E. V. Shorokhova, A. A. Nalchajan, A. G. Maklakov).

We used a set of methods for collecting primary information aimed at solving problems and testing hypotheses, including a theoretical analysis of the literature on the research problem, a questionnaire, an interview, a method of expert assessments, and a conversation.

For the analysis and interpretation of the data, various mathematical and statistical methods of information processing were used.

The empirical base of the study was compiled by statistical data of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, the results of psychological and sociological research conducted by domestic and foreign scientists, materials of the periodical press, scientific-theoretical and scientific-practical conferences. The thesis is also based on the results of a specific psychological study of the adaptation of reserve officers conducted by the author in the bodies and troops of the North Caucasus regional directorates, military schools and institutions of central subordination. At the same time, the work of the social protection agencies with reserve officers in the places of their compact residence in the cities of the Rostov region was studied.

The study was conducted from 2000 to 2004 and consisted of 4 stages.

At the first stage of the study, the research topic was formulated, the urgency of the problem was substantiated, goals, tasks and hypotheses were determined, the main stages were outlined, and methods for collecting information and processing data were selected.

At the second stage, a theoretical analysis and understanding of the problem was carried out, domestic and foreign literature on the research topic was studied.

At the third stage (empirical research) the detailed description of the contingent participating in the experiment is given; The levels of psychological adaptation of servicemen discharged into the reserve were determined, the entire experimental array was subjected to the statistical processing method; The analysis of psychological difficulties of adaptation, the causes of their occurrence, as well as the conditions conducive to the process of psychological adaptation.

At the fourth stage, the processing and interpretation of the obtained data, approbation and implementation of the research results were carried out, practical recommendations were formulated and the dissertation work was completed.

The scientific novelty of the research is determined by the totality of the results of the solution, the problems posed in the thesis and in a generalized form, in that:

- identified the adaptation capabilities of the individual through the assessment of the level of development of psychological characteristics, the most significant for the regulation of mental activity and the process of adaptation to civilian life;

- analyzed and evaluated the role of the adaptation potential of servicemen in the adaptation process;

- features, contradictions and factors of the sociocultural environment are shown that affect the adaptation potential of the servicemen discharged to the reserve;

- developed a model of psychological training of servicemen for civilian life and recommendations for its implementation in psychological practice.

The theoretical significance of the study is determined by the fact that on the basis of ideas about the subjective-activity paradigm and ideas of the psychology of holistic individuality, the systematization of knowledge and psychological theories on the psychological adjustment of servicemen to civilian life conditions is carried out, and the main directions of increasing the adaptive capacity of servicemen discharged into the reserve are theoretically justified , as a determining factor in the process of adaptation to civilian life.

The practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the results of the study can be used to improve the work of military authorities and social services in providing social and psychological assistance to dismissed military personnel in the development of regional and local programs designed to enhance the integration of military personnel in the civilian environment. The dissertation materials can serve as a basis for the preparation of relevant sections of training courses in psychological and pedagogical disciplines, as well as for conducting lecture and educational work.

Testing and implementation of research results. The main results of the work were discussed at a meeting of the Department of Psychology and Life Safety of the Taganrog State Radio Engineering University (Taganrog, 2004); Various aspects of the content of the thesis, its conclusions and scientific and methodological recommendations were discussed at meetings of the leadership of military units and institutions in which research was conducted. On the topic of the thesis, presentations and reports were made at scientific conferences: the 7th International Scientific Conference "Development and Professional Development of Youth in Educational Systems" (2002); All-Russian scientific-practical conference "Developing personality in the system of higher education in Russia" (2002); The Second All-Russian Internet-conference (with international participation) “Personality Potential: A Complex Problem” (2003); XLIX scientific, technical and methodological conferences of the faculty, graduate students and employees of the Taganrog State Radio Engineering University (2003); at the scientific and methodological seminars on psychology and life safety and at the permanent scientific and methodological seminar of adjuncts, graduate students and applicants of TSURE.

The reliability and validity of the research results are scientifically supported by the initial theoretical and methodological positions; using empirical, experimental and theoretical methods that are adequate to the goals and objectives of the study; representativeness and sufficient sample size; a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data obtained; using the methods of mathematical statistics.

The main provisions for the defense:

1. Personal adaptation potential determines the success of adaptation of servicemen who are discharged to the reserve, and targeted psychological training contributes to the disclosure of the individual's internal reserves and enhances its adaptive potential;

2. Adaptation abilities of an individual largely depend on the psychological characteristics of a person, determining the possibility of adequate regulation of the functional state of a person in various conditions of life and activity. The greater the adaptation capabilities of the individual, the higher the likelihood of normal functioning and effective activity when the external conditions of life change;

3. Psychological personality traits that determine the possibility of successful adaptation are interrelated and constitute the integral characteristic of mental development - the personal adaptation potential. Indicators of personal potential contain information on the compliance or non-conformity of the psychological characteristics of a person to the dynamics of external conditions of vital activity;

4. The personal adaptation potential allows differentiation of all military personnel according to the degree of resistance to the effects of external psycho-emotional stressors, which determines the appropriateness of using this integral characteristic of personality development in developing and implementing a system of psychological preparation for civilian life of servicemen discharged to the reserve.

The structure and scope of the thesis. The thesis consists of an introduction, a chapter of theoretical research, two chapters of one’s own research on a topic, a conclusion and a list of references from 229 titles.

The work is presented on 174 pages of typewritten text, contains 7 tables, 15 figures and applications.

In the introduction, the relevance of the research topic is substantiated, the degree and nature of its development are shown; the object, subject, goals and objectives of the study are determined; formulated hypotheses and provisions for the defense; given the methodological and theoretical foundations of the study; The scientific novelty, theoretical and practical significance of the dissertation are revealed.

The first chapter, “Adaptation of retired military personnel to the conditions of the civilian environment, as a psychological and pedagogical problem”, presents a comprehensive analysis of the theory of adaptation, discusses modern approaches to studying the problem of adaptation, characterizes the factors influencing the adaptation process.

In the second chapter, “The Impact of Environmental Factors on the Adaptation Potential of Servicemen Discharged into the Reserve,” the values ​​of the personal potential of servicemen discharged into the reserve are determined; According to the results of the factor and correlation analysis, the influence of the factors of the socio-cultural environment on the personal adaptation potential was assessed.

In the third chapter, “Psychological and pedagogical training of servicemen discharged into the reserve,” the psychological essence and role of the personal potential in adapting the servicemen discharged into the reserve was described, a model of psychological preparation of servicemen for civilian life was proposed, and recommendations were developed for implementing this model and improving the adaptive capacity of the individual.

In conclusion, the main results of the research are summarized, and prospects for the further development of this problem are outlined.
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