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Actuality and statement of the problem of dissertational research. Radical transformations of all spheres of life of Russian society, the country's transition to new economic bases, the transformation of the Armed Forces, carried out in difficult socio-economic conditions, cause a significant growth of a number of problems related to the reform of society and the army.

Reduction of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation generates an acute social problem associated with the adaptation to new conditions of life and activity of citizens discharged from military service and caught up in the labor market. Most of the retired servicemen are of working age and have a high educational level. They are ready to realize their potential in civil conditions, to become an important pillar of economic reforms, but in most cases educated and able-bodied citizens for a number of reasons are unclaimed in the labor market and fall into the group of social risk.

The situation of regular servicemen is complicated by a number of circumstances:

- those who have been dismissed from the military service have to radically change all spheres of their life (professional, domestic, socio-psychological) already in adulthood, which often leads to frustrating situations and conflict;

- unlike those who lost their jobs in civilian life, a significant part of those discharged from military service, or who does not have a civilian specialty or during the service, received highly specialized military and professional training;

- The situation of professional military personnel (officers and warrant officers) discharged from military service on the labor market aggravates their age, as employers today prefer young professionals;

- a rather high level of education and professional qualification of servicemen dismissed to the reserve does not correspond to the profile of civilian specialties.

These circumstances exacerbate interpersonal and interpersonal conflicts, lead to problems in the family, contribute to the development of various psychological abnormalities (alcoholism, depression), often requiring medical intervention.

Therefore, the emerging situation calls for the development and implementation of a number of radical measures, first of all, on changing the social status of servicemen and members of their families, as stipulated by law, on the priority development of social work with them in a closed military society, to search for and use the potential not only of state and departmental social policy in relation to this particular group of the population, but also on the implementation of specific practical measures for the psychological support of the transition of servicemen to gr civil life.

The relevance of the topic of this study is also due to the following:

- an acute need for further development of the theory of psychological adaptation of various categories of citizens to the crisis socio-economic and political conditions of life;

- the dynamics of changes in the mental state of servicemen after their dismissal from military service and the task of forming among former servicemen an adequate attitude to the need to adapt to new conditions of life;

- the need for in-depth analysis and evaluation of the role of the adaptation potential of servicemen who are being retired;

- the increased practical significance of the psychological and pedagogical training of servicemen in the process of adaptation to civilian life.

The fact that the process of socio-psychological adaptation to the conditions of the civilian environment, new for servicemen after the end of military service, requires the maximum activity from the individual is of particular relevance to the problem.

The state of scientific development of the research problem.

Theoretical and methodological fundamentals of studies of adaptation, personality are reflected in the domestic science in the late 60 - mid 70's of the twentieth century. In the works of DA. Andreeva, S.D. Artemova, TG Dicheva, I.A. Miloslavova, L.M. Rastova, E.V. Shorohovoy and several others.

In the late 70 - early 80's. in the scientific works of GA. Goroshidze, N.A. Ershova, I. Kalaykova, S.V. Kineleva, N.E. Shafazhinskaya studied the issues of ideological-gnoseological nature, the problems of the general theory of adaptation and the biosocial nature of man. Essential aspects of the problem of psychological adaptation of the personality and its regularities in various types of activity are revealed, in the studies of A.A. Aldasheva, Т.В. Barlas, L.M. Vildavskaya, M.A. Dmitrieva, M.A. Ivanova and N.A. Tishova. An attempt to create a unified theory of socio-psychological adaptation of the individual was undertaken in the monograph of A.A. Nalchadjan (1988).

In the domestic military science, certain aspects of the adaptation of servicemen were considered in the works of A.V. Barabanshchikova, A.D. Glotochkina, LF Zheleznyak, V.L. Marischuk, V.F. Perevalova, Ya.V. Podolyaka, E.P. Utlika, N.F. Fedenko and others. Special studies of the problems of the adaptation of various categories of servicemen to the conditions of service in the army were conducted by the military teacher S. Kabelet (1975), military sociologists LG. Egorov (1976), A.S. Stradanchenkov (1994), military psychologists V.Ya. Yablonko (1982), J.G. Senokosov (1989), V.I. Buyanov (1996). From the standpoint of psychological science, certain aspects of the adaptation of servicemen dismissed to the reserve were also studied.

The socialization of military reserve personnel as a socio-psychological problem was considered in his dissertation by Yu.V. Medvedev (1994). The thesis of B.E. Shelesta (1997) is devoted to the social adaptation of reserve officers. The socio-pedagogical conditions for the adaptation of former servicemen and members of their families are explored in the dissertational works of I.G. Skorokhodova (1998) and I.V. Dmitrieva (1999).

However, the conducted studies do not allow us to see the adaptation of former military personnel as part of a holistic process of the formation and development of their personality, the mastering by them of the whole variety of social relations associated with military service and its completion, and do not fully resolve all issues of modern psychological practice of preparing those who leave for reserve military personnel to civilian life.

Thus, the problem of this study is to determine the role of the individual's adaptive potential in the psychological preparation for the civilian life of military personnel who are being retired to the reserve. The solution of this problem is the purpose of the study.

The object of the study are servicemen who are being dismissed from the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

The subject of the study is the adaptation potential in the psychological preparation for the civilian life of servicemen who are being retired to the reserve.

In accordance with the purpose, the object and subject of the research was put forward a number of assumptions that emerged as hypotheses of the study:

- the success of adaptation to the conditions of civilian life can be ensured by the purposeful psychological and pedagogical training of servicemen who are dismissed to the reserve;

- The system of psychological training can be built if one reveals the degree of adaptive capabilities of the individual through assessing the level of development of psychological characteristics that are most significant for the regulation of mental activity and adaptation processes;

- psychological features of the personality are interrelated and constitute one of the integral characteristics of the mental development of the individual's adaptive potential; The actualization of this potential is the essence of psychological training of servicemen to the conditions of civil life.

The hypotheses and goal put forward necessitated the solution of the following problems:

1. On the basis of the theoretical and methodological analysis of the problem of adaptation, trace the genesis, strategies and mechanisms of the process of adapting servicemen who are being retired to the reserve.

2. To investigate the specifics of the dynamics of servicemen who are being retired to the reserve.

3. Identify the adaptive capabilities of the individual through assessing the level of development of psychological characteristics, the most significant for the regulation of mental activity and the process of adaptation to civil life.

4. Analyze and evaluate the role of the adaptation potential of servicemen in the process of adaptation.

5. Using the methods of statistical analysis, assess the degree of influence of factors of the socio-cultural environment on the personal adaptive potential.

6. To build a model of psychological preparation for the civilian life of servicemen who are being retired to the reserve, and to show the ways of its practical implementation.

The methodological basis for the study was the idea of ​​the active nature of interaction between the individual and the social environment (LS Vygotsky, AV Petrovsky), on the unity of consciousness and activity (AN Leontiev SL Rubinstein), on mental functions in the context (KK Platonov), a subject of mental activity (BG Ananiev, AV Brushlinsky, BF Lomov), as well as personal, socially-activity approaches (AV Barabanshchikov, LF Zheleznyak, NF Fedenko)

The theoretical basis of the research was the works of domestic and foreign scientists, which examine the scientific foundations of the psychology of personality and social groups (KA Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, AG Asmolov, AB Orlov), the concept of the integrity of individuality and personality (B Stolin, AB Orlov), the study of value-semantic orientations and spiritual and moral foundations of the individual (G.M.
Andreeva, A. Maslow), the essence of socio-psychological processes (F. Alexander, GE Zhuravlev, EV Shorokhova, AA Nalchadzhan, AG Maklakov).

The work used a set of methods for collecting primary information aimed at solving the tasks and checking the hypotheses put forward, including a theoretical analysis of the literature on the research problem, a questionnaire survey, an interview, a method of peer review, a conversation.

Various mathematical and statistical methods for processing information were used to analyze and interpret the data obtained.

The empirical base of the study was made up of statistics from the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, the results of psychological and sociological research conducted by domestic and foreign scientists, materials of the periodical press, theoretical and scientific and practical conferences. The thesis is also based on the results of a specific psychological study of the adaptation of reserve officers conducted by the author in the organs and troops of the North Caucasian regional administrations, military educational institutions and institutions of central subordination. At the same time, the work of the social protection bodies of the population was studied with reserve officers in places of their compact residence in the cities of the Rostov Region.

The study was conducted from 2000 to 2004 and consisted of 4 stages.

At the first stage of the research, the research topic was formulated, the relevance of the problem was grounded, goals, tasks and hypotheses were determined, the main stages were outlined, methods of information collection and data processing were selected.

At the second stage - the theoretical analysis and understanding of the problem was carried out, domestic and foreign literature on the research topic was studied.

In the third stage (an empirical study), a detailed description of the contingent participating in the experiment was given; the levels of psychological adaptation of servicemen who were dismissed to the reserve were determined, the entire experimental array was subjected to the statistical processing method; The analysis of psychological difficulties of adaptation, the reasons for their occurrence, as well as the conditions that contribute to the process of psychological adaptation are analyzed.

At the fourth stage, processing and interpretation of the received data, approbation and introduction of the results of the study were carried out, practical recommendations were formulated and the dissertation was completed.

The scientific novelty of the research is determined by the totality of the results of the solution set in the thesis of problems and in a generalized form is that:

- the adaptive capabilities of the individual have been identified through an assessment of the level of development of psychological characteristics that are most significant for the regulation of mental activity and the process of adaptation to civil life;

- the role of the adaptation potential of servicemen in the process of adaptation was analyzed and evaluated;

- features, contradictions and factors of the sociocultural environment affecting the adaptation potential of servicemen discharged into the reserve are shown;

- developed a model of psychological training of servicemen for civilian life and recommendations for its implementation in psychological practice.

The theoretical significance of the research is determined by the fact that on the basis of ideas about the subjective activity paradigm and the ideas of the psychology of integral individuality, the systematization of knowledge and psychological theories on the problem of the psychological adaptation of servicemen to the conditions of civil life has been carried out, and the main directions for increasing the adaptive potential of military personnel discharged to the reserve , as the determining factor of the process of adaptation to civil life.

The practical significance of the work is that the results of the research can be used to improve the work of the military command and social services in providing social and psychological assistance to retired servicemen, while developing regional and local programs designed to increase the integration of military personnel into the civilian environment. The materials of the thesis can serve as the basis for the preparation of the relevant sections of the training courses on psychological and pedagogical disciplines, as well as for conducting lecture and educational work.

Testing and implementation of research results. The main results of the work were discussed at the meeting of the Department of Psychology and Life Safety of the Taganrog State Radio Engineering University (Taganrog, 2004); various aspects of the content of the dissertation, its conclusions and scientific and methodological recommendations were discussed at meetings of the leadership of the military units and institutions in which the research was conducted. On the topic of the thesis, reports and presentations were made at scientific conferences: the 7th International Scientific Conference "Development and Professional Development of Youth in Educational Systems" (2002); All-Russia scientific-practical conference "Developing personality in the system of higher education in Russia" (2002); The Second All-Russian Internet Conference (with international participation) "The Potential of the Individual: a Complex Problem" (2003); XLIX scientific-technical and scientific-methodical conferences of faculty, graduate students and employees of Taganrog State Radio Engineering University (2003); on scientific and methodological seminars on psychology and life safety and at the constantly functioning scientific and methodological seminar of adjuncts, graduate students and applicants of TRSTU.

The reliability and validity of research results are scientifically provided by the initial theoretical and methodological positions; using empirical, experimental and theoretical methods, adequate to the goals and objectives of the study; representativeness and sufficient sample size; a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data; application of methods of mathematical statistics.

Basic provisions to be protected:

1. Personal adaptation potential determines the success of adaptation, military personnel being dismissed to the reserve, and purposeful psychological preparation contributes to the disclosure of the internal reserves of the individual and the enhancement of its adaptive potential;

2. The adaptive capabilities of the individual largely depend on the psychological characteristics of the individual, determining the possibility of adequate regulation of a person's functional state in a variety of conditions of life and activity. The greater the adaptive capacity of the individual, the greater the likelihood of normal functioning and effective activity when the external conditions of life change;

3. Psychological characteristics of the personality that determine the possibility of successful adaptation are interrelated and constitute an integral characteristic of mental development - a personal adaptive potential. Indicators of the personal potential contain information about the compliance or inconsistency of the psychological characteristics of the personality to the dynamics of external conditions of life;

4. Personal adaptation potential allows to differentiate all servicemen according to the degree of resistance to the influence of external psychoemotional stressors, which determines the expediency of using this integral characteristic of personality development in the development and implementation of a system of psychological preparation for civilian life of servicemen who are being retired to the reserve.

Structure and scope of the dissertation. The thesis consists of an introduction, a chapter of theoretical research, two chapters of his own research on the topic, a conclusion and a list of literature from 229 titles.

The work is presented in 174 pages of typewritten text, contains 7 tables, 15 figures and annexes.

The introduction substantiates the urgency of the research topic, shows the degree and nature of its development; the object, object, goals and tasks of the research are defined; hypotheses and provisions put forward for defense are formulated; the methodological and theoretical bases of the research are presented; The scientific novelty, the theoretical and practical significance of the thesis are disclosed.

В первой главе «Адаптация увольняемых в запас военнослужащих, к условиям гражданской среды, как психолого-педагогическая проблема», представлен всесторонний анализ теории адаптации, рассмотрены современные подходы в изучении проблемы адаптации, охарактеризованы факторы, влияющие на процесс адаптации.

Во второй главе «Влияния средовых факторов на адаптационный потенциал военнослужащих, увольняемых в запас», определены значения личностного потенциала военнослужащих, уволенных в запас; по результатам проведенного факторного и корреляционного анализа произведена оценка влияния факторов социокультурной среды на личностный адаптационный потенциал.

В третьей главе «Психолого-педагогическая подготовка военнослужащих увольняемых в запас», охарактеризована психологическая сущность и роль личностного потенциала в адаптации военнослужащих, увольняемых в запас, предложена модель психологической подготовки военнослужащих к гражданской жизни, разработаны рекомендации по реализации этой модели и повышению адаптационного потенциала личности.

В заключении обобщаются основные результаты исследования, намечаются перспективы дальнейшей разработки данной проблемы.
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