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Object and subject of psychological support for combat operations of a unit
The subject of research, in most cases, is the individual psychological capabilities of a warrior, primarily his psychological readiness for battle and psychological stability. Meanwhile, it is obvious that the measured level of individual psychological readiness changes significantly when a warrior is included in different military collectives, while performing combat missions in familiar or unusual natural-geographical, weather-climatic, and socio-political conditions. There is a paradoxical situation: trying, for example, to ensure victory in the football mast, the organizers carefully calculate how the “foreign field” affects the psychological and somatic state of the athletes, the fan’s preferences, the expected weather conditions, the change in the biorhythmic modes of the athletes, the teamwork level, the presence of the team conflicts, the level of professional skill and volitional mobilization of the opponent, etc. When predicting the chances of winning a battle in the best case scenario, only Coy morale of soldiers, without taking into account its dynamics, without qualitative and quantitative comparison with those of the enemy troops.
It was ignoring the need for a systematic approach to the analysis of the psychological components of combat activity that gave rise to the facts that took place in the hostilities of our troops in Chechnya in 1995-1996. Separate military units were hastily staffed by military personnel from 40-45 military units, practically did not know not only military and psychological capabilities, but also each other's names. In the heat of battle, some commanders could only recall the surname of a subordinate from the list in order to clarify the combat mission to him. Many soldiers and commanders lacked not only skills, but also ideas about the modern tactics of warfare in settlements. The nature of the possible influence on the combat activity of the troops of the behavior of the local population and the psychological capabilities of the enemy were not reasonably predicted. Troops deployed from the Far East region entered the battle without adapting to climatic conditions, to the regime of biorhythmic activity.
This situation became possible not only due to the inertial inattention of a number of commanders to the psychological side of modern combat, but also the narrow approach of psychologists to understanding the object of psychological impact, not understanding the importance of the idea of comprehensive psychological support for military operations. Today it is becoming increasingly apparent that there is no alternative to this idea. It follows from the very essence of a humanistic approach to the image of an armed defender of the interests of the state.
Purely theoretically, the participant in hostilities can be considered in the public mind as a “consumable”, as a “means of solving combat missions” and as a “social value” (Table 2.2). The approach chosen in society completely determines the content of psychological assistance to a warring person.
Dependence of mental assistance technologies on the stereotype of a warrior
The table shows that when a warrior is seen as an appendage to weapon systems and military equipment, a kind of "consumable", it is enough to psychologically prepare him for battle and include him in combat activity, and his further fate is not interesting to the state. Such an attitude to the warrior becomes possible in cases where members of society are essentially “cogs”, “nuts”, cattle, “cannon fodder”.
When a warrior is regarded as a "means", there is a need for its content, in the implementation of a kind of "psychological regulation." In this case, there is a need for psychological support, psychological support and recovery. After the end of hostilities, the fate of veterans ceases to be of interest to the state, society, and the psychological community.
In the event that a person is considered by the state as the highest value, it becomes interested in the return of each participant from the war, and is mentally healthy, ready for creative activity. Then an organized, gradual psychological return of war veterans to the system of social ties in peacetime, i.e., socio-psychological rehabilitation, is carried out. This ensures the protection of veterans with a “naked”, vulnerable psyche from traumatic factors of a harsh and uncompromising peaceful society, and society itself from people with altered values and meanings of life, with specific needs, with a peculiar understanding of justice, etc.
Thus, a society that has truly grown to the recognition of the value of human life and personality should be ready to accept a holistic concept of psychological support for military operations.
Such a concept has been developed in military psychology since the beginning of the 80s. last century. It assimilated the following ideas:
• W. Stern and G. Munsterberg on the complex application of psychological knowledge to practice;
• A. A. Krylov and G. S. Nikiforov on the cross-cutting nature of the psychological support of activities;
• E. M. Dubovsky and O. A. Tikhomandritskaya on the combination of design and consulting strategies in psychological practice;
• S. A. Lipatov on the level structure of psychological support;
• heuristic views on the nature and organization of the psychological support of various types of military activity contained in the writings of military psychologists D. V. Gander, O. I. Zhdanov, V. G. Korchemnogo, A. V. Otvetchikova, V. N. Selezneva, N F. Fedenko and L.F. Zheleznyak, V.T. Yusov, and others.
The modern concept of psychological support of military operations includes the following provisions.
1. The term “security” is used in it in a sense that is relevant but not for operating material means (for example, to provide something in sufficient quantities), but for solving social and psychological problems (for example, to ensure that: peace, military discipline , superiority over the enemy, etc.). That is, collateral is considered as a process of imparting reliability properties, relentlessness to the implementation of certain measures, achievement of goals by creating the necessary and sufficient conditions for this.
The “psychological” predicate used in relation to collateral means that the subject of influence is of a psychological nature and that psychological means are used to change it.
The concept of "psychological support" contains an internal requirement for the mandatory solution of psychological problems of combat activity.
2. The object-subject field of psychological support for military operations of the troops represents the system. Today, many poorly spelled out and poorly compatible categories are thrown into this field. Among them: “psychological qualities”, “psychological readiness”, “psychological stability”, “moral and psychological state”, “psychological capabilities”, etc.
Some of them substantively duplicate each other, while others need a clearer logical correlation. At the same time, their use gives practically nothing to either the psychologist or the commander, since it does not allow the main thing to be done - to compare any of the listed qualities of our troops with the similar qualities of the enemy.
It seems necessary to develop a single, albeit somewhat simplified description of the psychological capabilities of the troops (both their own and the enemy), which would include the entire set of significant psychological factors of the effectiveness of military operations available for analysis and accounting. Then the quantitative requirements for the actual use of these factors will be entirely determined by the level of their manifestation in the enemy troops.
The psychological model of modern combat1 proposed above leads us to consider, as an object of psychological research, not the impact of an individual soldier, but of the “man-environment-activity” system.
Such a system includes a serviceman, as well as elements of a social and ergonomic environment that affect the psychological components of his combat activity (goal, motives, mental states, methods of action). A soldier as a subject of hostilities is considered from three sides:
1) on the part of its internal psychological capabilities to carry out hostilities;
2) on the part of the psychological conditions of the social and ergonomic environment that support it;
3) on the part of adverse and opposing psychological circumstances of the environment.
This shows that the optimization of hostilities can be achieved using three ways:
a) by improving the psychological capabilities of warriors;
b) by creating a favorable external environment;
c) by reducing the psychological capabilities and effectiveness of the enemy’s influence on our soldiers.
3. Based on the foregoing, it is proposed that the psychological capabilities of the troops, or, in our opinion, the more relevant term targeted psychological resource (CPR), be considered as the subject of psychological support for combat operations of personnel.
The concept of a psychological resource has recently been widely used in humanistic psychology, neurolinguistic programming, psychosocial work. It denotes the conscious and unconscious actual and potentially accessible psychological capabilities of a person contained in his present, past and future.
See the chapter “Modern Combat and its Impact on the Psyche of Warriors”.
However, as emphasized above, the psychological capabilities of a person vary significantly with a change in the social, activity, and ecological-ergonomic environment. In essence, these media themselves potentially contain a resource for various types of combat activity, which, if actualized, is woven into the fabric of the psychological capabilities of a particular soldier.
For example, the frosty winter of 1941 became a kind of resource for the Red Army, the mountainous terrain of Chechnya and the mood of local residents are resourceful for Chechen fighters. The marine, possessing the psychological resource for effective military operations, deployed for several hours by plane from the Far East to Grozny, is losing it to a significant extent.
Therefore, it seems important, firstly, to include both relevant and potential elements in the military’s psychological resource, and, secondly, to use the term “psychological resource” only in relation to combat missions of a certain level, class.
The target psychological resource should be understood as the totality of cash and potentially available for use individually-psychological, socio-psychological and psychoergonomic opportunities for effectively solving problems of a certain type (class).
The structure of the object of psychological support (personality-environment-activity) determines the structural-content certainty of the target psychological resource (table. 2.3).
CPR, reflecting the phenomenon of polymotivation of combat activity, includes components:
• personal (individual psychological readiness of a serviceman for active actions on the battlefield);
• interpersonal (motivating, compensating and psychotherapeutic influence of colleagues);
• supra-personal (stenic influence of collective opinion, mood, traditions);
• psychoergonomic (rational organization of spatio-temporal, technical, technological, environmental parameters of combat activity).
Elements of the DPC are in a relationship of complementarity and partial compensation. For example, the lack of individual psychological readiness can be compensated to a certain extent by the correct arrangement of people, creating the effect of “psychological infection” by group mood, etc.
The DPC of different people and the same soldier at different times differs in terms of volume, quality, and degree of conformity with the purpose of the hostilities. However, he may:
a) be unknown to the soldier himself and others;
b) be absent or not fully comply with the requirements of combat activity;
c) consciously or unconsciously replaced by quasi-resources (drugs, alcohol, religious beliefs, superstitions, rituals, "detachments", etc.);
d) to be exhausted in the process of activity and disorganization due to the targeted psychological impact of the enemy; be lost and destroyed;
e) become irrelevant, inadequate to the new social and activity conditions;
e) fully meet the requirements of the combat mission.
The structure of the target psychological resource
The deficiency of the CPR can be filled up spontaneously, spontaneously, by trial and error, or purposefully, in an organized manner, taking into account the regularities of the manifestation of the human psyche and psychology of military collectives in a combat situation. The latter method is the psychological support of hostilities.
The state of the resource determines the specific technology of psychological support that must be implemented in a specific situation (table. 2.4).
Dependence of psychological support technologies on the state of central circulation
Thus, the consistency of the object of psychological support determines the consistency of its subject. The target psychological resource, representing a combination of available and potentially available for use individually-psychological, social-psychological and psychoergonomic opportunities for effectively solving tasks of a certain type (class), enters the combat participant.
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