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The relevance of the study of the problem of adaptation is noted by a number of domestic and foreign scientists. The wide interest in the problem of human adaptation allows us to speak not only about the versatility, universality of a class of adaptive phenomena, but also about significant discrepancies in methodological and methodological approaches in defining its essence, in interpreting the very concept of "adaptation." This, first of all, explains the difference between the objects of study, that is, the properties, sides, relations and processes separated from the general object (in this case, human and human relations), during its study from the point of view of various sciences.

Adaptation as a process is a dialectic unity of the main opposite trends: self-preservation and self-development, where the first, striving for stability and balance through adaptation, tries to bring the human condition to stability and immutability, and the second induces him to activity, looking for new tasks and ways development. The interdependence of these trends is obvious, since the first establishes effective, valuable ways to solve behavioral problems that arise during self-development, creating optimal conditions for another trend - self-development, actively changing “from the inside”.

Accordingly, to build an optimal strategy of adaptive behavior, it is necessary, on the one hand, to recognize and analyze the current situation and activity perspective, on the other hand, to show regulatory capabilities on the actual problem of adaptive activity. Strategy as a system of large-scale decisions and planned activities, the consistent implementation of which is designed to achieve more or less satisfactorily the main goals that the subject sets itself.

The study of mental adaptation requires consideration of its functions in the overall adaptation process. Since any adaptation is a process of building optimal ratios between the organism and the environment, determining the value of mental adaptation implies the answers to the questions about exactly which ratios between man and the environment depend mainly on mental adaptation and how changes in mental adaptation affect the homeostatic systems of the body.

So, based on the provisions of A.N. Leontiev, K.A. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, V.N. Myasishcheva, A.V. Petrovsky and others on the activity of the individual, P.A. Prosetsky, V.A. Slastenin, G.I. Tsaregorodtsev view activity as an internal, intrinsic to the process of adaptation beginning.

Adaptive behavior as a psychologically activity-related involvement of a person in a social and professional environment occurs as the environment turns out to be a sphere for the realization of a person’s life plans, needs and aspirations, and an individual is revealed and developed in a community as a person and as an individual.

The process of effective adaptation consists in building a perfect system of entering the subject into new conditions of self-realization and self-development with a high probability of specifically relevant self-building of individual abilities and resources of the subject of these changes and possible choices. The fulfillment of the latter, in turn, is determined by the individual characteristics of the functioning of both the cognitive and emotional-volitional and moral spheres of the individual.

Thus, “Adaptation is the process of developing, if possible, an optimal regime of purposeful functioning of an individual, i.e. bringing it in the specific conditions of time and place into a state where all the energy, all the physical and spiritual forces of a person are directed and spent on the performance of its main tasks. Such a state is achieved by the transformation of external conditions of vital activity, experienced as new, into unusual “own conditions”; as a result of adaptation, a person acts naturally, naturally. ”

Entering the post-army life, former military personnel already have some experience in establishing mutual relations in a collective, a system of value orientations and attitudes in relation to socially useful activities and to people around them. According to A.S. Stradanchenkov, a person with positive value orientations will be able to more quickly adapt to a civilian microenvironment than a person with a negative orientation, because the latter does not coincide with the general direction of the development of society. The coincidence (or non-coincidence) of value orientations, needs, motives of a social group and a person within it is the basis of their adaptive interaction: successful adaptation or, conversely, disadaptation.

The soldier turns to psychological and pedagogical support as a result of the choice of strategy of action and behavior in a crisis situation, providing for filling the deficit of social competence. But there are other behavioral strategies that need to be known in order to “move”, to help servicemen in a problem situation to overcome barriers that prevent the choice of “training strategies”. To do this, psychologists involved in social training transferred to the reserve should have an idea about the procedures of strategic choice, as well as the main stages of activity on designing strategies for human behavior in a crisis situation (creating new lifestyles - rethinking life - reassessing previous life values).

As never before, the maxims of Socrates become "all evil in ignorance," "know yourself." Knowing oneself, revealing one's potential, may be the key to solving not only the problem of adaptation, but also the determinant of creative and spiritual self-realization.

An integrated approach to the study of the potential of the individual, in our understanding, inevitably leads to the need to reach the level of the scientific paradigm not only of psychology, as a branch science, but also of science as a whole, as a system for the acquisition and processing of knowledge. In the most general terms, an interdisciplinary study of a person today is about developing the concept of human potential. The problem of the disclosure of human potential in line with the theory of self-actualization is quite widely disclosed in the works of A.G. Asmolova, PI Pidkasistogo, V.I. Slobodchikova, A.G. Maklakova.

In the second chapter, describing the contingent of military personnel, it should be noted that the study involved 214 people. The subjects included military personnel preparing for dismissal and discharged into the reserve, members of their families, command and staff personnel bodies of military units, employees of territorial bodies of social protection of the population and employment centers, leaders of veterans' organizations, university professors.

Fig. one.

The contingent of persons dismissed from the Armed Forces

.

The conceptual basis for solving the problems of psychological preparation of servicemen discharged from the reserve should be the theory of adaptation.

The purpose of the empirical research is to assess the influence of factors of the socio-cultural environment on the adaptation potential of military personnel. The adaptation potential can be used as a criterion for the effectiveness of adaptation - an integrative characteristic that makes it possible to adequately reflect the process of social and psychological adaptation of servicemen.

In turn, the adaptation potential depends on a number of factors of the social environment. Methods of mathematical statistics allow us to answer the question - to what extent. One of the conditions of the scientific method is the obligatory empirical testing of ideas. This means that as a result of careful observation or experimentation, exact facts or correlations between variables are established.

In our case, the most appropriate method of correlation and factor analysis. To assess the degree of influence of social and cultural factors on the personal adaptation potential of the military contingent, a method of conducting a questionnaire with a subsequent statistical analysis of the results has been proposed. The survey toolkit (questionnaire) is specially designed taking into account the specifics of the studied age group of the society and includes, in the removed form, the characteristics of the main areas of life activity: socio-economic factors, work, life, family, leisure, etc. The questionnaire items are presented in the form of closed questions for the convenience of processing the results using a computer. In the two questionnaires, 56 questions were suggested that can be represented by factors of 3 levels in accordance with the proposed multi-level model of sociocultural mega-factors.

A representative sample is represented by a contingent of servicemen of a regiment of transport aviation. Testing was conducted in accordance with the methodology of the MLO “Adaptability” test, which revealed the importance of the personal adaptation potential for each serviceman, and correlation analysis, to determine the correlation coefficients of the socio-cultural environment factors and the adaptation potential.

As a result, the following factors received the most significant, but not having a significant effect on the adaptation potential: 1) the standard of living in general; 2) inclusion in public life; 3) conditions of life; 4) well-being in family relationships; 5) the possibility of personal growth; 6) legality.

After ranking the factors of the sociocultural environment by levels of significance and dividing all 56 factors into the main 6 groups, the first level factors, social and economic, were most correlated.
In second place, personal life and working conditions, and in third place - living conditions and social relations.

Fig.2 -

The value of the correlation coefficient of the general PAWS with the index of the questionnaire "Analysis"



Fig.3 - The value of the correlation coefficient of the general PAH with the index of the questionnaire "Significance"

Social - r = 0.316 Working conditions - r = 0.087

Personal life - r = 0.116 General relations - r = 0.083

Economy - r = 0.167 Living conditions - r = 0.055

Thus, the correlation analysis did not reveal the dominant factors of the socio-cultural environment that have a significant impact on the adaptation potential.

The next step of “compressing” information, or a compact description of the phenomena studied in the presence of a multitude of variables, is the procedure of factor analysis. In psychological research, the goal of factor analysis is to find several fundamental factors that would explain most of the variance in a group of estimates for various variables. In the 56 questionnaires presented to the analysis of variables, for them the task of factor analysis is to find the matrix of factor loadings or correlations between factors. There are several factor analysis procedures, but they all involve two stages: 1) factorization of the correlation matrix to obtain the initial factor matrix; 2) rotation of the factor matrix to detect the simplest configuration of factor loads.

The factorization stage in this process is designed to determine the number of factors necessary to explain the relationships between the various variables. The rotation of the factors makes them more understandable, interpretable.

One of the most well-known factorization procedures is the principal axis method (principal

Factor analysis confirms the data obtained as a result of correlation analysis. The following factors have an impact on the adaptation potential of military personnel, but only slightly:

The next stage of the research is the collection and analysis of objective data of respondents with high, medium and low personal potential. Analyzing psychological processes and properties, general educational level, disciplinary practice and purposefulness in achieving the goal and processing the results graphically obtained data similar to the correlation and factor methods. Personal adaptation potential does not depend on psychological properties, psychological processes, educational level and type of personality temperament.

Although modern multi-factorial theories of personality ultimately reduce the structure of personality to the projections of all the same basic factors - biological and social, it should be noted that we have found a weak influence of environmental factors on the adaptation potential of a person.

Thus, it can be stated that the correlation analysis, factor analysis and subjective assessment of military personnel show that environmental factors do not have a significant impact on the adaptive capabilities of the individual, which in our opinion is explained by the stability of the personal characteristics of military personnel. Consequently, the focus of attention in the process of psychological training of servicemen should be directed not at correcting the components of the external environment (ie, not at creating specific conditions with the help of social services), but directly at the personality of a military person, in order to conduct psychological preparation oriented towards the disclosure of internal resource of the person, to update its adaptive capacity.

In the third chapter, analyzing the state of development of the research problem and choosing the tactics of psychological and pedagogical work with military personnel, it is necessary to take into account the following contradictions between:

- the ever-increasing social tension, great intensity of social interactions, the number of external and internal (personal) crisis situations experienced by the military and the person’s unpreparedness for their constructive resolution;

- the challenge of new socio-economic realities prevailing in our country, and the lack of programs aimed at developing the potential of the individual;

- the need for an increasing number of military personnel who are discharged into the reserve for psychological training, an expanding network of social retraining structures and the lack of scientific understanding, theoretical and methodological foundations and scientific and methodological support for this process.

The leading idea here is the following: we consider psychological preparation as a specially organized process of acquiring military personnel with the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to manage the adaptation potential, the result of which is the willingness to actively act in difficult life situations.

Teaching programs and trainings that have already become traditional, such as “Choosing a profession”, “Acquiring social competence”, “Hierarchical structures of experience”, “Role-playing games”, “Communicative competence”, “Motivational training” and others, should be corrected and to focus more on the way to solving new problems at new levels of personal development.

The process of psychological preparation in such an understanding does not necessarily have to be continuous, but is organized and implemented as the needs of servicemen arise to fill the deficit of their own psychological stability or in crisis situations, since the crisis situations of a person greatly actualize his needs for actualization of his potential.

The proposed method of psychological training is aimed at increasing human potential and its implementation in the process of self-development and self-actualization of the individual. At the level of scientific intuition, there is no doubt that, in contrast to physical systems, the realization by man of his potential in many cases leads not to its reduction and exhaustion, but to the creation of new opportunities for its development and; formation.

Psychological training of servicemen is a system of targeted actions aimed at shaping and securing the psychological readiness and stability of soldiers, mainly based on self-improvement of personal and development of professionally important qualities, gaining experience of successful actions in the simulated extreme conditions of a new social environment. That is, the factor of novelty sometimes plays a decisive role in the manifestation of previously formed qualities in a person, and the task is to provide and place the military in the conditions in which the necessary psychological qualities will be developed even during the transitional period of adaptation. If the expenditure of physical and mental forces in the course of life (the process of adaptation) is as natural as a game or a rest, one must learn to predict, control and manage personal potential.

Psychological preparation offered for consideration is based on well-known methodological principles (humanistic, holistic, synergistic and preconditioning), which are described in detail in the text of the thesis.

Along with the general methodological principles, it is appropriate to propose a number of principles applicable in a specific subject area - this is the principle of positivity, correlation, potentiality and the principle of multidimensionality of truth.

Further, the place, the role, the content and the general algorithm of psychological preparation conducted with the servicemen discharged to the reserve are disclosed.

В связи с постоянной вариативностью социокультурных факторов и сменой психоэмоциональных состояний личности процесс раскрытия адаптационного потенциала постоянно действует во времени и пространстве и может быть представлен в виде контура, основными элементами которого являются: когнитивный элемент, технологический элемент, информационный элемент, ресурсный элемент, ценностная компонента, организационный элемент, мотивационная компонента, инновационный элемент.
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