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The relevance of the study of the problem of adaptation is noted by a number of domestic and foreign scientists. Wide interest in the problem of human adaptation allows us to speak not only about the multilateral nature and universality of the class of adaptive phenomena, but also about the significant differences in methodological and methodological approaches in determining its essence, and the interpretation of the very concept of "adaptation." This, first of all, explains the difference in the subjects of research, that is, the properties, aspects, relationships and processes singled out from a common object (in this case - human and human relations), in the course of its study from the point of view of different sciences.

Adaptation as a process is a dialectical unity of the main opposite tendencies: to self-preservation and self-development, where the former, striving for stability and equilibrium through adaptation, tries to bring the human condition to stability and immutability, and the latter urges him to activity, seeking all new tasks and ways development. The interdependence of these trends is obvious, since the former fixes effective, valuable ways of solving behavioral problems arising in the course of self-development, creating optimal conditions for another trend - self-development, actively changing "from within".

Accordingly, in order to construct an optimal strategy for adaptive behavior, it is necessary, on the one hand, to understand and analyze the available situation and the activity perspective, on the other, to show the regulatory possibilities for the actual problem of adaptive activity. The strategy as a system of large-scale decisions and planned activities, the consistent implementation of which is designed to achieve more or less satisfactory the main objectives that the subject sets himself.

The study of mental adaptation requires consideration of its functions in the general adaptation process. Since any adaptation is a process of constructing optimal relationships between the organism and the environment, the definition of the value of mental adaptation presupposes answers to questions about which relations between a person and the environment depend primarily on mental adaptation and how changes in mental adaptation affect the homeostatic systems of the organism.

So, based on the provisions of A.N. Leontief, K.A. Abulkhanov-Slavskoy, V.N. Myasischeva, A.V. Petrovsky and others on the activity of personality, P.A. Prosetsky, V.A. Slastenin, G.I. Tsaregorodtsev consider activity as an internal, inherent in the process of adaptation of the beginning.

Adaptive behavior as a person's psychologically active involvement in the social and professional environment occurs as the given environment turns out to be a sphere of realization of life plans, needs and aspirations of the individual, and the individual reveals himself and develops in community as a person and as an individual.

The process of effective adaptation consists in constructing a perfect system of entering the subject into new conditions for self-realization and self-development with a high probability of a specifically actual self-building of the individual abilities and resources of the subject of these changes and possible elections. The fulfillment of the latter, in turn, is determined by the individual features of the functioning of both the cognitive and emotional-volitional, and moral spheres of the individual.

Thus, "Adaptation is the process of developing, if possible, an optimal mode of purposeful functioning of the individual, i.e. bringing it in specific conditions of time and place in a state where all energy, all physical and spiritual forces of man are directed and spent on the fulfillment of its main tasks. Such a state is achieved by transforming the external conditions of life, experienced as new, into unusual "own conditions"; as a result of adaptation, a person acts naturally, at ease. "

Entering post-army life, former servicemen already have some experience in establishing mutual relations in the collective, a system of value orientations and attitudes towards socially useful activities and the surrounding people. According to A.S. Stradanchenkova, a person with positive value orientations will be able to adapt faster in the civilian micro environment than a person with a negative orientation. the latter does not coincide with the overall orientation of the development of society. The coincidence (or non-coincidence) of value orientations, needs, motivations of the social group and the personality that enters into it is the basis of their adaptive interaction: successful adaptation or, on the contrary, disadaptation.

A soldier turns to psychological and pedagogical support as a result of choosing a strategy of action and behavior in a crisis situation, which provides for the filling of a deficit of social competence. But there are other strategies of behavior that need to be known in order to "move", to help the servicemen who find themselves in a problem situation to overcome barriers that hamper the election of the "training strategy". To this end, psychologists engaged in social education of those discharged to the reserve should have an understanding of the procedures for strategic choice, as well as the main stages in the development of strategies for human behavior in a crisis situation (creating new ways of life-rethinking life-reassessing the old values ​​of life).

As ever, the maxim of Socrates "all evil in ignorance", "know yourself". Knowing yourself, revealing your potential, may be the key to solving not only the problem of adaptation, but also the determinant of creative and spiritual self-realization

An integrated approach to the study of the potential of the individual, in our understanding, inevitably leads to the need to reach the level of the scientific paradigm of not only psychology, as a branch science, but also of the whole of science as a system of acquiring and processing knowledge. In the most general terms, in an interdisciplinary human study today, we are talking about the development of the concept of human potential. The problem of the disclosure of human potential in the mainstream of the theory of self-actualization is rather widely disclosed in the works of A.G. Asmolova, P.I. Pidkasistogo, V.I. Slobodchikova, A.G. Maklakova.

In the second chapter, characterizing the contingent of military personnel, it should be noted that 214 people took part in the study. The composition of the test subjects included servicemen preparing for dismissal and discharged into the reserve, members of their families, commanders and employees of the personnel departments of military units, employees of territorial social protection bodies and employment centers, heads of veteran organizations, university professors.

Fig. 1.

The contingent of persons who are being dismissed from the Armed Forces


The conceptual basis for solving the problems of psychological training of servicemen who are being dismissed into the reserve should be the theory of adaptation.

The goal of conducting empirical studies is to assess the influence of socio-cultural environment factors on the adaptation potential of servicemen. Adaptation potential - integrative characteristic, which allows to adequately reflect the process of social and psychological adaptation of servicemen can serve as a criterion of the effectiveness of adaptation.

In turn, the adaptation potential depends on a number of factors of the social environment. Methods of mathematical statistics allow you to answer the question - to what extent. One of the conditions of the scientific method is the obligatory empirical verification of ideas. This means that as a result of careful observation or experiments, precise facts or the relationship between variables are established.

In our case, the most appropriate method of correlation and factor analysis. To assess the degree of influence of socio-cultural environment factors on the personal adaptation potential of the military contingent, a method for conducting a questionnaire survey with subsequent statistical analysis of the results was proposed. The survey toolkit (questionnaire) has been specially developed taking into account the specifics of the age group of the society under study and includes, in the removed form, the characteristics of the main spheres of life: social and economic factors, work, life, family, leisure, etc. The points of the questionnaire are presented in the form of closed questions for the convenience of processing results using a computer. In two questionnaires, 56 questions were suggested, which can be represented by 3-level factors in accordance with the proposed multi-level model of sociocultural megafactors.

A representative sample is represented by a contingent of servicemen from the regiment of transport aviation. The testing was carried out in accordance with the methodology of the MLO test "Adaptability", which revealed the value of the personal adaptation potential for each serviceman, and correlation analysis, to determine the coefficients of correlation of socio-cultural environment factors and the adaptive potential.

As a result, the following factors that have the most significant but not significant influence on the adaptation potential: 1) the standard of living in general; 2) involvement in public life; 3) conditions of life; 4) well-being in family relations; 5) the possibility of personal growth; 6) legality.

By ranking the factors of the socio-cultural environment by significance levels and dividing all 56 factors into the main 6 groups, the first level, the social and economic factors, received the maximum correlation.
In second place, personal life and working conditions, and on the third - the living conditions and social relations.

Fig.2 -

The value of the correlation coefficient of the general LAP with the index of the questionnaire "Analysis"

Fig.3 - The value of the correlation coefficient of the general LAP with the index of the questionnaire "Relevance"

Social - r = 0.316 Working conditions - r = 0.087

Personal life - r = 0.116 General relations - r = 0.083

Economy - r = 0.167 Household conditions - r = 0.055

Thus, the correlation analysis did not reveal the dominant factors of the sociocultural environment that exert a significant influence on the adaptation potential.

The next step of "compressing" information, or a compact description of the phenomena under study in the presence of multiple variables, is the procedure of factor analysis. In a psychological study, the purpose of factor analysis is to find several fundamental factors that would explain most of the variance in the group of estimates for different variables. In the questionnaires presented to the analysis of 56 variables, therefore for them the task of factor analysis is to find matrix factor loads or correlations between factors. There are several procedures for factor analysis, but all of them assume two stages: 1) factorization of the correlation matrix to obtain the original factor matrix; 2) rotation of the factor matrix, to detect the most simple configuration of factor loads.

The factorization stage in this process is designed to determine the number of factors necessary to explain the relationships between different variables. Rotating factors makes them more understandable, interpretable.

One of the most famous factoring procedures is the principal axes method (principal

Factor analysis confirms the data obtained as a result of the correlation analysis. The following factors influence the adaptation potential of servicemen, but insignificantly:

The next stage of the research is the collection and analysis of objective data of respondents with high, medium and low personal potential. Analyzing the psychological processes and properties, the overall educational level, disciplinary practice and purposefulness in achieving the goal and processing the results graphically, they obtained data similar to the correlation and factor methods. Personal adaptive potential is not dependent on psychological properties, psychological processes, educational level and personality temperament type.

Although modern multi-factor theories of personality, ultimately, reduce the structure of the personality to the projections of all the same basic factors - biological and social, it should be noted that we have found a weak influence of environmental factors on the adaptive potential of the individual.

Thus, it can be stated that the conducted correlation analysis, factor analysis and subjective assessment of servicemen show that environmental factors do not have a significant effect on the adaptive capabilities of the individual, which in our view is due to the stability of the personal characteristics of servicemen. Consequently, the focus of attention in the process of psychological training of servicemen should be directed not at correcting the components of the external environment (ie not at creating specific conditions with the help of social services) but directly on the personality of the serviceman with the aim of conducting psychological training aimed at uncovering the internal resource of the person, on actualization of its adaptive potential.

In the third chapter, analyzing the state of the development of the research problem and choosing the tactic of psychological and pedagogical work with military personnel, it is necessary to take into account the following contradictions between:

- Increased social tension, high intensity of social interactions, the number of external and internal (personal) crisis situations experienced by servicemen and the unreadyness of the individual to their constructive resolution;

- the challenge of new socio-economic realities that have developed in our country, and the lack of programs aimed at developing the potential of the individual;

- the need for an increasing number of military personnel to be retired, psychological training, an expanding network of social retraining structures, and the lack of scientific understanding, theoretical and methodological foundations, and scientific and methodological support for this process.

The leading idea here is the following: we consider psychological preparation as a specially organized process for mastering the military personnel with the knowledge, skills and skills necessary to manage the adaptive potential, the result of which is the willingness to act actively in difficult life situations.

Became already traditional, the offered training programs and trainings: "Choice of profession", "Acquisition of social competence", "Hierarchical structures of experience", "Role games", "Communicative competence", "Motivation training" and others, in our opinion should be adjusted and to increase the emphasis on reaching a solution to new problems, at new levels of personal development.

The process of psychological preparation in this sense does not have to be continuous, but is organized and implemented as the needs of the servicemen arise in meeting the deficit of their own psychological stability or in crisis situations, because the crisis situations of a person to a large extent actualize its needs for actualization of the potential.

The proposed methodology of psychological training is aimed at enhancing human potential and its implementation in the process of self-development and self-actualization of the individual. At the level of scientific intuition, there is no doubt that, unlike physical systems, the realization of a person's potential in many cases leads not to its reduction and exhaustion, but to the creation of new opportunities for its development and; becoming.

Psychological training of servicemen is a system of targeted influences aimed at the formation and consolidation of psychological readiness and stability among warriors, primarily on the basis of personal self-improvement and the development of professionally important qualities, the acquisition of successful experiences in the simulated extreme conditions of a new social environment. That is, the factor of novelty sometimes plays a decisive role in the manifestation of previously formed qualities in a person, and the task is to ensure, even in the transition period of adaptation, to provide and put servicemen in conditions in which the necessary psychological qualities will be developed. If the expenditure of physical and mental forces in the course of life (the process of adaptation) is as natural as a game or rest, one must learn, to predict, control and manage personal potential.

The psychological preparation offered for consideration is based on well-known methodological principles, (humanistic, holistic approach, synergistic and preconditionality), which are described in detail in the thesis.

Along with the general methodological principles, it is appropriate to propose a number of principles applicable in a particular subject area, namely, the principle of positivity, correlation, potentiality and the principle of the multidimensionality of truth.

Further, the place, role, content and general algorithm of psychological training conducted with military personnel who are dismissed into the reserve are disclosed.

В связи с постоянной вариативностью социокультурных факторов и сменой психоэмоциональных состояний личности процесс раскрытия адаптационного потенциала постоянно действует во времени и пространстве и может быть представлен в виде контура, основными элементами которого являются: когнитивный элемент, технологический элемент, информационный элемент, ресурсный элемент, ценностная компонента, организационный элемент, мотивационная компонента, инновационный элемент.
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