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Negative leadership in primary military collectives
The interaction of servicemen of various periods of service in primary military collectives is a natural process. developing taking into account individual and group differences of warriors. Interpersonal relations of military personnel is carried out in the military-professional, public and domestic sphere of military activity.
The level of development of personal qualities, the degree of adaptation and solidarity of military personnel significantly distinguishes them. Some soldiers and groups of servicemen occupy a leading, leading position in military collectives, while others - a slave. This significant difference in warriors leads to the formation of an unofficial structure of the primary collective, as a rule, within the company, battery and their equal units. The degree of manifestation of the effectiveness of this structure is different. Most effectively, its effect on newly arrived servicemen, as well as those soldiers who oppose, "do not fit" into the accepted interpersonal relations of a particular military collective.
Features of the development of negative leadership in army units
In the conditions of army life, relations between military personnel are regulated by charters, orders, directives, instructions of commanders and commanders. Such relations are called official. Their most complete manifestation is carried out in the military professional sphere of military activity. Here, the organizational and staff structure of the unit with a hierarchy of vertical relations, i.e. relations between superiors and subordinates, senior and junior. The role of seniors and commanders is not only officers and warrant officers, but also sergeants, as well as the most experienced and trained military personnel in interpersonal relations with newly arrived, unprepared soldiers. A significant difference between senior conscription soldiers in the level of professional readiness and organization leads to their dominance in the domestic sphere. Interpersonal and intergroup relations of soldiers in this area are less regulated and subject to control by senior commanders. It is in this area, including eating, order in the barracks, in the fixed territory, etc., that the violation of the rights and personal dignity of some soldiers by others is most pronounced. Negative leadership in primary military groups is understood as the process of dominance, the leading position of individual soldiers and groups of servicemen infringing on the rights of servicemen, as a rule, junior conscription, forming traditions, customs, and norms of negative behavior. This approach of phased study and prevention of negative leadership in primary military collectives was prepared on the basis of studying best practices in combating the hazing of conscripts and the conclusions of the study. The purposeful and creative application of the appropriate methodology by unit officers will help in solving the problems of uniting military collectives, and ultimately will provide an increase in the combat ability of military units.
Stage 1. Self-determination of military personnel in primary military collectives.
In the majority of military units and subdivisions, the replenishment of the ranks of military personnel takes place through training units. Therefore, in a similar situation, self-determination of military personnel is carried out twice: in training and combat units. The self-determination of military servicemen who first crossed the threshold of a military unit is manifested in interpersonal interactions that permeate all aspects of military activity. In the first days and weeks of military training, relations are formed in the emotional, intellectual, organizational spheres of interpersonal interaction of soldiers. The emotional sphere of interpersonal interaction is characterized by mutual likes and dislikes. Emotional qualities of a soldier are manifested more often externally. These are facial features, growth, physical abilities, the ability to communicate, wear a uniform, a desire to help, understand, come to the rescue, etc. The emotional superiority of a particular soldier is immediately noticeable. An emotional leader is perceived not only by the immediate environment, but also by people who first saw him. During a sociometric questionnaire, it is revealed in answers to questions 2 and 3. An emotional leader is the most adequate expression of assessments of a soldier’s personality. Sensually perceived qualities of a warrior at the initial stage of service are based on previously formed images. To have a negative orientation in interpersonal relationships, emotional superiority is not enough. However, it is important for the unit commander to know that an emotional leader with organizational skills is able to lead a group of both positive and negative orientation. The intellectual superiority of individual military personnel is manifested in the greater development of mental cognitive processes, in accumulated knowledge, and the ability to perform certain creative tasks. Intellectual leadership in military collectives is determined by higher successes in combat and political training, in special training, in the manifestation of horizons and overall development. In questionnaire No. 1, intellectual leadership is identified by question No. 1: Whose knowledge and skills in matters of combat training, mastery of a specialty are most authoritative for you from the military personnel of your department or plant? Excellence in the intellectual sphere of interaction between military personnel does not provide a manifestation of negative leadership. But psychological unity in a group of military personnel with the participation of an intellectual leader is often not achieved. The commanders and commanders are especially concerned with military personnel who display high abilities in organizational activities. The leader-organizer possesses such personal qualities that allow him to impose his will, his approaches, ideas on other military personnel. Unnoticed in a timely manner, uninvolved in the official organizational and staffing structure of such a unit, such a leader creates an unofficial structure in the form of a group of various orientations.
An important factor in identifying such a soldier for the commander is that sociometric questioning, in particular answers to questions No. 5 and No. 6, are effective for 2-3 months of joint service, and learn about the leader-practitioner in the first days, weeks. Otherwise, such a soldier can realize himself on the negative side. Thus, at the stage of self-determination of military personnel in primary military collectives, their primary interpersonal interaction is manifested. This stage is closely related to the adaptation of warriors and takes a time interval of 2 to 6 weeks.
2nd stage. Differentiation of military personnel in primary military collectives.
The development of intra-group relations of soldiers of military service leads to a different socio-role status of each of them. At this stage, the differentiation of soldiers occurs, which is manifested in the implementation of various role functions in the course of military activity. Studying the experience of officers with the personnel of units, it can be concluded that the results achieved by military personnel in military activities serve as an integral assessment of the manifestation of their personal qualities. In such a situation, the main efforts of the commanders are made to achieve an external effect - the fulfillment of assigned tasks.
In reality, these tasks can be accomplished by infringing on the rights, first of all, of young warriors. This is due to the fact that newly arrived soldiers, often regardless of the development of personal qualities, have a different status with senior military personnel. The manifestation of this differentiation is most noticeable in units with the presence of approximately the same number of soldiers of various appeals. In such an environment, negative leadership is observed by individual military personnel.
3rd stage. Self-organization and self-government of a group of military personnel. The obtained results of the research data indicate that up to 72% of leaders of a negative orientation are representatives of the last period of service. The elimination of the leader by the commanders did not give the desired result. The negative impact on, in the first place, the junior draft was preserved by the leading groups. They tried to rectify this situation under experimental conditions by forming units of single-draft composition. However, no positive effect was achieved. The negative impact in interpersonal relations began with the self-organization and self-management of negative groups. Groups that occupy leading positions in this direction were formed more often on national, regional, and social grounds. In such groups, the most authoritative military personnel with organizational skills, experience of physical and moral suppression of others act as a negative leader. It seems that the elimination of the leader will give a positive effect. In reality, the negative orientation of the group persists in the absence of a leader. This is explained by the formed traditions, customs, rituals, and well-established opinions in such groups. The warning of the negative leader in the primary military collectives consists in a targeted impact on each of its stages of development. At the stage of self-determination of soldiers, it is important to identify a leader-practitioner who is distinguished by organizational abilities. The negative orientation at this stage on the part of the leader does not find support on the part of the soldiers from his call, or from the military servicemen of senior calls. It is important for commanders to know who this leader is and to strive to include him in the official, organizational and staff structure of the unit as part of the asset, junior commanders, etc. At the stage of differentiation, warriors with the highest social-role status and high reference are determined. The efforts of commanders to bring the leader-organizer and the leader-emotional closer together contribute to team building. Often about the type of leaders combined in one person. At the stage of self-organization of groups of military personnel, it is necessary to concentrate efforts on ensuring that this rapprochement is based on joint performance of military activities, but on crews, crews, units, and it is especially important to prevent national, regional social hatred. The seniority and leadership of warriors is reimbursed through the unity of the official and unofficial structure of the military unit. In this case, the prevention of negative leadership is carried out by intra-collective interaction, the convergence of official (regulated) relations and unofficial relations between military personnel. The formation of statutory relations should be supported by psychological, economic, ideological, domestic and other factors.
Recommendations on the application of the method of sociometric questioning.
The use of sociometric questionnaires is intended to identify the socio-role position of military personnel in primary military teams (crew, crew, squad, squad, platoon). For this, members of the contact group are invited to answer the following questions:
1. Whose knowledge and skills in matters of combat training, mastery of a specialty for you are the most authoritative of the military personnel of your department, platoon?
2. With whom would you like to continue your friendship after being retired?
3. Which of your servicemen makes the greatest contribution to the development of friendly relations in the detachment and platoon?
4. With whom would you like to carry out critical combat missions, participate in difficult, extreme situations?
5. With the behavior and views of which servicemen would you disagree?
6. What do you think, which of your colleagues could lead the group to carry out the responsible task set by the commander?
The task of conducting a sociometric questionnaire is to achieve mutual trust, to ensure that the information received is not made public. In this case, the signature of the questionnaire on the questionnaire allows you to successfully obtain the relevant results. Questionnaire No. 1 is aimed at fulfilling leaders and leading groups in primary military collectives. The questions are designed in such a way that they reveal the military personnel who are most different in three areas of interpersonal interaction: emotional, intellectual, and organizational. For each criterion, the sociomatrix and sociogram are separately compiled. Based on this table, you can calculate the personal sociometric indices of each of the five calculation members, given that: "+" is a one-way choice;
"-" - one-sided rejection; "+" - mutual choice; "=" - mutual rejection; "0" - no choice or rejection.
1. The index of sociometric status:
where: R is the election received by the i-member: E is the algebraic summation of the received election of the i-member (sum in columns); N is the number of members of the group (calculation). Sociometric status according to 1 criterion indicates the attitude of the team to its member, the level of its potential leadership in interpersonal interaction.
2. Index of emotional expansiveness:
where: R - choices made by the j-member; E is the algebraic summation of the choices made by the j-term (sum over the row); N is the number of group members.
The index of emotional expansiveness on the 1st criterion shows a measure of the relationship of an individual to a team, its need for communication.
3. Sociometric adaptability index:
where: R + are the positive choices made by the j-member;
wj is the number of reciprocal positive choices received by a member;
E - algebraic summation of choices.
The index characterizes the measure of satisfaction of the need for positive emotions of contacts in the process of communication.
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Negative leadership in primary military collectives
- Features of the development of negative leadership in military units
In the conditions of military service, relations between military personnel are regulated by charters, orders, directives, instructions of commanders and commanders. Such relationships are called official. They provide the maintenance of high military discipline. Their most complete manifestation is carried out in the military professional sphere of activity of military collectives. It is clearly manifested here
- Leadership in primary military groups
Primary Military Leadership
- Team leadership
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- Course work. Socio-psychological relations in military groups, 2011
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