home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Negative leadership in primary military collectives

The interaction of servicemen of various periods of service in primary military collectives is a natural process. developing taking into account individual and group differences of warriors. Interpersonal relations of military personnel is carried out in the military-professional, public and domestic sphere of military activity.

The level of development of personal qualities, the degree of adaptation and solidarity of military personnel significantly distinguishes them. Some soldiers and groups of servicemen occupy a leading, leading position in military collectives, while others - a slave. This significant difference in warriors leads to the formation of an unofficial structure of the primary collective, as a rule, within the company, battery and their equal units. The degree of manifestation of the effectiveness of this structure is different. Most effectively, its effect on newly arrived servicemen, as well as those soldiers who oppose, "do not fit" into the accepted interpersonal relations of a particular military collective.



Features of the development of negative leadership in army units



In the conditions of army life, relations between military personnel are regulated by charters, orders, directives, instructions of commanders and commanders. Such relations are called official. Their most complete manifestation is carried out in the military professional sphere of military activity. The organizational and staffing structure of the unit with a hierarchy of vertical relations, i.e. relations between superiors and subordinates, senior and junior. The role of elders and chiefs is not only officers and warrant officers, but also sergeants, as well as the most experienced and trained military personnel in interpersonal relations with newly arrived, unprepared soldiers. A significant difference between senior conscription soldiers in the level of professional readiness and organization leads to their dominance in the domestic sphere. Interpersonal and intergroup relations of soldiers in this area are less regulated and subject to control by senior commanders. It is in this area, including eating, order in the barracks, in the fixed territory, etc., that the violation of the rights and personal dignity of some soldiers by others is most pronounced. Negative leadership in primary military groups is understood as the process of dominance, the leading position of individual soldiers and groups of servicemen infringing on the rights of servicemen, as a rule, junior conscription, forming traditions, customs, and norms of negative behavior. This approach of phased study and prevention of negative leadership in primary military collectives was prepared on the basis of studying best practices in combating the hazing of conscripts and the conclusions of the study. The purposeful and creative application of the appropriate methodology by unit officers will help in solving the problems of uniting military collectives, and ultimately will provide an increase in the combat ability of military units.



Stage 1. Self-determination of military personnel in primary military collectives.



In the majority of military units and subdivisions, the replenishment of the ranks of military personnel takes place through training units. Therefore, in a similar situation, self-determination of military personnel is carried out twice: in training and combat units. The self-determination of military servicemen who first crossed the threshold of a military unit is manifested in interpersonal interactions that permeate all aspects of military activity. In the first days and weeks of military training, relationships are formed in the emotional, intellectual, organizational spheres of interpersonal interaction of soldiers. The emotional sphere of interpersonal interaction is characterized by mutual likes and dislikes. The emotional qualities of a soldier are manifested more often externally. These are facial features, growth, physical abilities, ability to communicate, wear a uniform, a desire to help, understand, come to the rescue, etc. The emotional superiority of a particular soldier is immediately noticeable. An emotional leader is perceived not only by the immediate environment, but also by people who first saw him. During a sociometric questioning, it is revealed in answers to questions 2 and 3. An emotional leader is the most adequate expression of assessments of the personality of a military man. Sensually perceived qualities of a warrior at the initial stage of service are based on previously formed images. To have a negative orientation in interpersonal relationships, emotional superiority is not enough. However, it is important for the unit commander to know that an emotional leader with organizational skills is able to lead a group of both positive and negative orientation. The intellectual superiority of individual military personnel is manifested in the greater development of mental cognitive processes, in the accumulated knowledge, and the ability to perform certain creative tasks. Intellectual leadership in military collectives is determined by higher successes in combat and political training, in special training, in the manifestation of horizons and overall development. In questionnaire No. 1, intellectual leadership is identified by question No. 1: Whose knowledge and skills in matters of combat training, mastery of a specialty are most authoritative for you from the military personnel of your department or plant? Excellence in the intellectual sphere of interaction between military personnel does not provide a manifestation of negative leadership. But psychological unity in a group of military personnel with the participation of an intellectual leader is often not achieved. The commanders and commanders are especially concerned with military personnel who display high abilities in organizational activities. The leader-organizer possesses such personal qualities that allow him to impose his will, his approaches, ideas to other military personnel. Unnoticed in a timely manner, uninvolved in the official organizational and staffing structure of such a unit, such a leader creates an unofficial structure in the form of a group of various orientations.

An important factor in identifying such a soldier for the commander is that sociometric questioning, in particular the answers to questions No. 5 and No. 6, are effective for 2-3 months of joint service, and learn about the leader-practitioner in the first days, weeks. Otherwise, such a soldier can realize himself on the negative side. Thus, at the stage of self-determination of military personnel in primary military collectives, their primary interpersonal interaction is manifested. This stage is closely related to the adaptation of warriors and takes a time interval of 2 to 6 weeks.



2nd stage. Differentiation of military personnel in primary military collectives.



The development of intra-group relations of soldiers of military service leads to a different socio-role status of each of them. At this stage, the differentiation of soldiers occurs, which is manifested in the implementation of various role functions in the course of military activity. Studying the experience of officers with the personnel of the units, we can conclude that the results achieved by military personnel in military activities serve as an integral assessment of the manifestation of their personal qualities. In such a situation, the main efforts of the commanders are applied to achieve an external effect - the fulfillment of assigned tasks.
In reality, these tasks can be accomplished by infringing on the rights, first of all, of young warriors. This is because newly arrived soldiers, often regardless of the development of personal qualities, have different statuses with senior military personnel. The manifestation of this differentiation is most noticeable in units with the presence of approximately the same number of soldiers of various appeals. In such an environment, negative leadership is observed on the part of individual military personnel.



3rd stage. Self-organization and self-government of a group of military personnel. The obtained results of the research data indicate that up to 72% of leaders of a negative orientation are representatives of the last period of service. The elimination of the leader by the commanders did not give the desired result. Negative impact on, in the first place, junior conscription was maintained by the leading groups. They tried to rectify this situation under experimental conditions by forming units of single-draft composition. However, no positive effect was achieved. The negative impact in interpersonal relations began with the self-organization and self-management of negative groups. Groups that occupy leading positions in this direction were formed more often on national, regional, and social grounds. In such groups, the most authoritative military personnel with organizational skills, experience of physical and moral suppression of others act as a negative leader. It seems that the elimination of the leader will give a positive effect. In reality, the negative orientation of the group persists in the absence of a leader. This is explained by the formed traditions, customs, rituals, and well-established opinions in such groups. The warning of the negative leader in the primary military collectives consists in the targeted impact on each of its stages of development. At the stage of self-determination of soldiers, it is important to identify a leader-practitioner who is distinguished by organizational abilities. The negative orientation at this stage on the part of the leader does not find support on the part of the soldiers from his call, or from the military servicemen of senior calls. It is important for commanders to know who this leader is and to strive to include him in the official, organizational and staff structure of the unit as part of the asset, junior commanders, etc. At the stage of differentiation, warriors with the highest socio-role status and high reference are determined. The efforts of commanders to bring the leader-organizer and the leader-emotional closer together contribute to team building. Often about the type of leaders combined in one person. At the stage of self-organization of groups of military personnel, it is necessary to concentrate efforts on ensuring that this rapprochement is based on the joint performance of military activities, but on crews, crews, and squads. It is especially important to prevent national, regional social hatred. The seniority and leadership of warriors is reimbursed through the unity of the official and unofficial structure of the military unit. In this case, the prevention of negative leadership is carried out by intra-collective interaction, the convergence of official (regulated) relations and unofficial relations between military personnel. The formation of statutory relations should be supported by psychological, economic, ideological, domestic and other factors.



Recommendations on the application of the method of sociometric questioning.



The use of sociometric questionnaires is intended to identify the socio-role position of military personnel in primary military collectives (crew, crew, squad, squad, platoon). For this, members of the contact group are invited to answer the following questions:

1. Whose knowledge and skills in matters of combat training, mastery of a specialty for you are the most authoritative of the military personnel of your department, platoon?

1st choice

2nd choice

3rd choice

2. With whom would you like to continue your friendship after being retired?

1st choice

2nd choice

3rd choice

3. Which of your servicemen makes the greatest contribution to the development of friendly relations in the detachment and platoon?

1st choice

2nd choice

3rd choice

4. With whom would you like to carry out critical combat missions, participate in difficult, extreme situations?

1st choice

2nd choice

3rd choice

5. With the behavior and views of which servicemen would you disagree?

1st choice

2nd choice

3rd choice

6. What do you think, which of your colleagues could lead the group to carry out the responsible task set by the commander?

1st choice

2nd choice

3rd choice

The task of conducting a sociometric questionnaire is to achieve mutual trust, to ensure that the information received is not made public. In this case, the signature of the questionnaire on the questionnaire allows you to successfully obtain the relevant results. Questionnaire No. 1 is aimed at fulfilling leaders and leading groups in primary military collectives. The questions are designed in such a way that they reveal the military personnel who are most different in the three areas of interpersonal interaction: emotional, intellectual, and organizational. For each criterion, the sociomatrix and sociogram are separately compiled. Based on this table, you can calculate the personal sociometric indices of each of the five calculation members, given that: "+" is a one-way choice;

"-" - one-sided rejection; "+" - mutual choice; "=" - mutual rejection; "0" - no choice or rejection.

1. The index of sociometric status:



where: R is the election received by the i-member: E is the algebraic summation of the received election of the i-member (sum in columns); N is the number of members of the group (calculation). Sociometric status according to 1 criterion indicates the attitude of the team to its member, the level of its potential leadership in interpersonal interaction.

2. Index of emotional expansiveness:

where: R - choices made by the j-member; E is the algebraic summation of the choices made by the j-term (sum on the line); N is the number of group members.



The index of emotional expansiveness on the 1st criterion shows a measure of the relationship of an individual to a team, its need for communication.





3. Sociometric adaptability index:

where: R + are the positive choices made by the j-member;

wj is the number of reciprocal positive choices received by a member;

E - algebraic summation of choices.

The index characterizes the measure of satisfaction of the need for positive emotions of contacts in the process of communication.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Negative leadership in primary military collectives

  1. Features of the development of negative leadership in military units
    In the conditions of military service, relations between military personnel are regulated by charters, orders, directives, instructions of commanders and commanders. Such relationships are called official. They provide the maintenance of high military discipline. Their most complete manifestation is carried out in the military professional sphere of activity of military collectives. It is clearly manifested here
  2. Leadership in primary military groups
    Primary Military Leadership
  3. Team leadership
    It is believed that leadership is the ability to influence both an individual and a group, directing their efforts to achieve their goals. This is a natural socio-psychological process, built on the influence of a person’s personal authority on the behavior of all members of a group or a certain part of it. In this case, under the influence is understood such human actions that contribute
  4. Course work. Socio-psychological relations in military groups, 2011
    Discipline: Psychology of groups and leadership. Basic socio-psychological concepts of the group. Leadership in primary military groups. The main directions and tasks of the psychological research of the military team. Questionnaire survey as a method of studying socio-psychological processes in military groups. Applications: Diagnosis of individual psychological characteristics (Test "Non-existent
  5. The structure of the military team
    In military units there is a wide variety of grassroots (primary) teams. The structure of their psychology has a lot in common. At the same time, they all differ from each other. This is explained by the fact that military collectives solve various problems, have their own military professional features (for example, depending on the structural unit - the combat unit, crew, coastal unit, etc.).
  6. Psychology of the military team
    The psychology of a military collective is a complex totality of intra-collective socio-psychological phenomena and processes, one of the aspects of its spiritual life. It is the result of the unification, summation of the psychology of individuals - members of this team. The following most important components in the structure of the psychology of a military collective should be distinguished: public (collective)
  7. The concept and essence of the military team
    The writings of the classics of pedagogy contain provisions that the team presents the greatest opportunities for the development of individual personality abilities. Collective - a concept of Latin origin, meaning "composure", i.e. integrity that preserves the integrity of the individual. The concept of a group is identical to the meaning of the old Russian word "circle". At the heart of both
  8. Psychological features of the relationship in military groups
    The characteristics of the relationship in a military collective are determined by the specifics of the military activity of the collective and the individual psychological characteristics of the military personnel that comprise it. These, first of all, include the leading role of formal service relations in comparison with informal ones. In the labor collective, a subordinate, in case of a significant discrepancy between his official and unofficial
  9. The socio-psychological structure of the military collective
    The structure of the psychology of the team is very complex and diverse. Moreover, each structural element can have its own characteristics, for example, a collective opinion can be single or diverse, relations in a team can be principled or unprincipled, friendly or tense; collective moods - tonic or reducing the activity of people, etc. Therefore, modern
  10. The principles of formation of military collectives, units
    The unit team is a social form of organization of people in military affairs. The stronger his internal commissure, the more favorable the moral climate, the wider his opportunities that he creates for the successful service of soldiers and sailors. All military collectives of units in their structure are complex and diverse. Their difference in social status, education, national
  11. The study of the psychological characteristics of the military team
    If the commander knows the features of the headed team, then he will easily be able to find the most effective management methods, he will be able to successfully implement the decisions made in any environment. To study the psychological characteristics of a military team, the unit commander, as a rule, uses methods of observation, questioning, analysis of group results
  12. Generalized characteristics of the psychology of a military collective
    An important generalized characteristic of any military collective is its orientation (purposefulness), which is a system of collective goals and tasks of the near and future prospects. Purposefulness reflects the generalized socially significant face of the unit, the nature of its actions, collective interests, requests, and aspirations. However to reinforce
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com