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The transformation of military psychology into an independent branch of psychological science

Since the middle of the XIX century, the emergence of military psychology, as an independent branch of psychological knowledge. The field of study of military psychology is the phenomena associated with the battle, the personality of a soldier, group military activity. This is expressed in the fact that: an understanding of the subject develops; methods of military psychological research are being developed; research areas are clearly distinguished; the formation of a system of military psychological knowledge.

The transformation of military psychology into an independent industry was determined by isolating and defining its subject, methods and tasks, the embodiment of the revealed patterns in the practice of military affairs. This was expressed: in the appearance of the first programs for constructing military psychology (N.A. Korf, A.P. Nechaev, G.E. Shumkov); in the creation of independent psychological research institutes: an experimental laboratory at the VMA, an experimental psychological laboratory at pedagogical courses for the management of universities, laboratories in the cadet corps; in the formation of the Department of Military Psychology in a society of adherents of military knowledge; in the introduction of sections of military psychology in the magazines “Military Collection”, “Pedagogical Collection”, the newspapers “Russian Disabled”, “Scout”, the appearance of articles on military psychology in the “Military Medical Journal”, “Psychiatric Newspaper”; in the teaching of psychology at pedagogical courses at the pedagogical museum of universities as a discipline, the basics of knowledge of military psychology in military schools and academies, in the course of tactics, military administration and military hygiene; in the growth of publications devoted to military psychology (see Fig. 1.).

Fig. 1.

Number of publications on military psychology





By 1917, there was a solid foundation for the further growth of military psychology.
Experimental laboratories have been created and are functioning in the main psychological centers: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Tartu (Yuriev), Kazan, Kharkov.

Thanks to the past psychological congresses, the domestic psychological school made itself known in Europe (1906, 1909, 1910, 1913, 1916). Philosophers, biologists, physiologists, educators, psychologists, and others actively worked in psychology. The I-st ​​Moscow Psychological Institute began its work actively in Russia.

In addition, the substantive problems considered by it speak of the transformation of military psychology into an independent branch of psychological science. This is, first of all, the psychological preparation of people through creating tense situations, getting to know the type of battle (Peter's war games, military “campaigns”, “through attacks”, “through attacks with cavalry”, shooting with live ammunition); problems of fear and panic, the role of man in the war and on the battlefield (Dragomirov, Golovin); structure of the psyche of a soldier; soldier behavior in battle; crowd psychology; selection and education of officers; military discipline; place and role of the army in society, the state; psychology of war.

Thus, military psychology in Russia in the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries stood out in an independent branch of psychological science, which has its own subject, principles, method and structure of knowledge. From the very beginning of the history of military psychology, the personality of a warrior has become the subject of military psychology. In the field of social psychology, military psychologists succeeded in formulating the classification of groups and psychological phenomena, and it was possible to reveal the mechanisms of social and psychological phenomena in the army. Combat activity was studied as a specific type of activity performed during a battle and associated with a risk to life.
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The transformation of military psychology into an independent branch of psychological science

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