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Professional and psychological preparedness for activity as a psychological problem

A psychological analysis of the sources and results of practical research of the essence and dynamics of the development of psychological preparedness for professional activity is carried out, the concepts of its categories such as psychological readiness, stability, preparedness and their relationship with the specifics of a particular activity are examined.

Key words: psychological preparedness, psychological stability, psychological preparedness, psychological preparation, professional psychological training.

The article carries out psychological analysis of scientific literature and the results of practical research as well as the essence and dinamics of development of psychological readiness to professional activity. The author examines such notions of activity categories as psychological readiness, stability, preparedness and their connection to the peculiarities of different activities.

Keywords: Psychological readiness, psychological stability, psychological preparedness, psychological training, professional-psychological training.

One of the most important issues of modern psychological science is the formation and development of professional and psychological preparedness of the subject for labor, camera, scientific, military, sports, driving and other types of activities, for the creative fulfillment of specific life tasks.

Such preparedness is achieved in the course of general (comprehensive) training, which includes moral-psychological, professional-psychological, psychophysiological and psychophysical training, taking into account the requirements of the characteristics of the activity and profession.

To achieve this goal, we carried out an analysis of theoretical sources and the results of practical studies of the nature and dynamics of the development of psychological preparedness for professional activity and the possibility of creating optimal conditions for its development by applying the developed system and a complex of psychological and pedagogical impact on the personality of the student.

The concepts of such categories as psychological readiness, psychological stability, preparedness for professional activities, psychological preparation, professional psychological training (SPP) are considered in domestic psychological science from the late 1950s - early 1960s, but they also Now it is not precisely defined, although their general content is disclosed quite widely.

Various interpretations and definitions of these definitions are often associated with the specifics of the activity in question in each case.

The connecting link of all studies is that they solve one common problem - the formation and development of the psychological preparedness of the subject for various types of professional activity.

A psychological analysis of the work of domestic researchers shows the variety of approaches they use in the study of the psychological preparedness of the subject for professional activities:

a) subject-activity, in which psychological preparedness is understood as the final result of preparation for a certain professional activity, which is considered as an integral personal education, which consists of motivational, volitional, cognitive, emotional and operational components, as well as personal qualities that are adequate to the requirements of professional activity ;

b) functional, involving the study of preparedness for activity as a certain level of the state of the psyche, which, when formed, provides the specialist with a high rate of achievement, which depends on the volume and completeness of information, the reserve of possibilities for correcting the situation, the system of direct and feedback;

c) meaningful, which involves the study of the features of this phenomenon depending on specific conditions;

d) socio-functional, aimed at the study of those functions that determine the psychological preparedness in the life of the subject;

e) structural and psychological, which is associated with the characteristics of the elements of psychological preparedness and their interconnections;

f) genetic, revealing the origins of psychological preparedness and their impact on it;

g) logical and epistemological, in the framework of which an understanding of the essence, content of psychological preparedness, its criteria and its relationship with other socio-psychological indicators is mainly clarified.

Interpretations of psychological preparedness and other categories are studied by us from the perspective of the subject-activity approach, which allows us to more specifically designate the field of analysis and most fully and widely cover all aspects of psychological phenomena.

So, we consider the category of "psychological readiness" and its content.

Willingness to work, according to K.K. Platonov, has various interpretations: broad - readiness for any activity, expressed in the desire to work in general; more specific - the need for labor, which has become a profession, which is determined by both professional development and the level of social maturity of the subject; the most specific is the readiness for immediate upcoming activities. Psychological readiness for work K.K. Platonov is defined as “persistent as a result of labor education or temporary as a result of mental preparation or psychological mobilization in a given period of a psychological state, determined by the presence of a need for labor” [32, p. 110].

The term “readiness” is understood by M.A. Kitty as a motivational aspect of personality. “In the word itself,” he notes, “the expression of desire sounds, as well as the factor of situationality (temporality), since it is perceived more as a characteristic of a state than a quality of a person” [21, p. 249].

In modern psychology, there is evidence of a person’s willingness to perform certain activities. These studies also indicate that it is possible to distinguish, on the one hand, general or long-term, and on the other, temporary or situational readiness, where the first is associated with a willingness to perform certain tasks of the activity, is a stable system of professionally important qualities, knowledge , skills, abilities and motives of activity.

According to E.S. Romanova, the category of “readiness” is the psychological basis for determining the stages of development of professionalism. She notes the following types of readiness: readiness for school, professional choice, vocational training, for professional activity, for continuing professional activities (professional development), for changing a profession (changing jobs) [37, p. 333].

B.G. Ananiev considered the formation of readiness for work as a complex independent dialectic process, the components of which are labor training and the participation of children in socially useful work, noting that the formation of a person’s general working capacity occurs long before the start of professional work, and therefore, the formation of readiness for work due to the improvement of the educational system may be getting earlier. General disability, thus, arises as a result of the formation of readiness for labor labor motivation. [1, p. 16]

N.D. Levitov, A.L. Sventsitsky, V.N. Myasishchev, A.Ts. Pugni consider psychological readiness as a mental state, as an integral manifestation of a personality that occupies an intermediate place between mental processes and personality traits, forming a functional level, against which processes develop.

N.D. Levitov presents psychological readiness as a temporary readiness and performance. He sees its essence in the prelaunch activation of mental function. He identifies three factors of individual readiness for professional activity: two psychological (the individual’s attitude to this work, his orientation in this area and ability to the profession) and pedagogical (mastery of the knowledge, skills necessary for this profession) [24, p. 113].

Yu.A. Samarin emphasizes: “Willingness as a psychological state of a student’s personality is his inner disposition towards a certain behavior when performing educational and labor tasks, setting him on an active and appropriate action during training and with the beginning of work after high school.” The goal of students' readiness formation “is to facilitate the process of adaptation in modern production, to achieve success, for which it is necessary to master the operational, moral, mental, organizational aspects” of the chosen profession [39, p. 20-21].

A.B. Leonova believes that to achieve readiness, an adequate reflection of the specialty, professional skill, and the ability to mobilize the necessary physical and mental resources for the implementation of activities are necessary. Thus, a state of readiness can be formed and developed. “Under the psychological readiness refers to the targeted formation of individual techniques that ensure the preservation of the given parameters of the activity in difficult situations” [25, p. 171].

The concept of professional readiness as a category of activity theory is considered, on the one hand, as the result of the preparation process, and on the other - as an attitude toward something.

In the study of F. Genov, it is noted that “the state of mobilization readiness of a person before performing this action is a holistic state that reflects the influence of tasks, type of activity and conditions before its implementation” [7, p. 16]. He considered mobilization readiness as “a complex structural (both physiological and psychological) form of reflection, combining all the structures of sports activity with their spatio-temporal parameters” [7, p. 17], that is, one of the forms of reflectivity of a person, due to the nature of the action to be performed.

In his studies, A.D. Ganyushkin also came to the conclusion that the athlete’s psychological readiness is a holistic manifestation of the subject, a kind of syndrome, the basis of which are intellectual and volitional properties combined with emotional, but not with the leading significance of the latter [6, p. 19].

V.A. Hansen notes a system of concepts that characterizes the mental state of a person, in which he identifies groups of affective and volitional states. The first group combines states that reveal the emotional reaction of the subject of activity. The second is the states that characterize the manifestations of feelings in the process of communication. The states of both groups are divided into a number of positive and a number of negative. The group of volitional states includes two subgroups: praxis (from lat. - business, activity) and motivational. The first includes the state of the individual at various stages of labor activity and readiness (installation). The second is the state accompanying the manifestation of human motives, in particular interest [5, p. 128].

V.A. Hansen believes that “readiness” is a practical, positive state, that is, a positive state that arises in connection with or in relation to one or another activity.

It should be noted that the concept of attitude is important for understanding the essence of psychological readiness for activity. So, V.N. Kuznetsov argues, “that readiness does not arise besides attitudes, if we understand them as establishing, attuning the subject to future activities ...” [22, p. 17].

The phenomenon of “installation” as a socio-psychological phenomenon is deeply studied in both domestic and foreign scientific literature.

So, in 1935, G. Allport examined sixteen definitions of an attitude and proposed his seventeenth: “An attitude is a state of mental alertness that has developed on the basis of experience and exerts a directing and dynamic influence on the individual’s reactions regarding all objects or situations that he encounters” [ 57, p. 3-12].

As noted by M.I. Dyachenko and L.A. Kandybovich, in most foreign studies, the attitude is interpreted as a three-membered structure with emotional, intellectual, and behavioral substructures that determine a person’s activity in his environment [13, p. 176].

G. Gibsh and M. Forverg define the concept of attitude as a stable readiness of a person to respond to a specific situation or set of situations, which is characterized by a distinct tendency to naturally and unambiguously shape the way individuals behave [8, p. 296].

R. Stolberg, while studying the factors of a person’s attitude toward work, notes that attitudes determine the significance that a person attaches to labor in a value system [56, p. 347]. At the same time, personality attitudes are identified with value orientations.

In domestic psychology, the study of the concept of installation is primarily associated with the names of S.L. Rubinstein, D.N. Uznadze, I.T. Bzhalavy, A.S. Prangishvili, A.G. Asmolova.

S.L. Rubinstein associated the concept of “personality installation” with relations to the goals and objectives facing the individual, with a readiness for activities aimed at its implementation. “The setting,” he wrote, “arises as a result of a certain distribution and internal interaction of trends expressing the orientation of the personality, presenting their outcome in a state of dynamic rest and the background, the background against which they further develop. Not being itself directly a movement in any direction, the installation still contains a direction ”[38, p. 625].

D.N. Uznadze reveals the attitude as “the state of the subject, changing depending on the tasks that he sets himself, and the conditions in which he solves them” [45, p. 168]. Readiness D.N. Uznadze and his followers are considered as an essential feature of the attitude, found in all cases of the subject's behavioral activity. A.S. Prangishvili notes that “an essential general psychological feature of an activity is its occurrence on the basis of readiness for a certain form of response-attitude” [34, p. 8]. Representatives of the Georgian psychological school consider the attitude as “an integral psychological state of the personality, which is formed during its mental activity and determines the process of behavior of the subject” [17, p. 8].

“In the light of the concept of installation,” notes A.S. Prangishvili, - the nature of human activity becomes clear as a manifestation of his personality, more precisely, the nature of the unity of personality and activity ”[34, p. 21].

Developing the installation problem, A.G. Asmolov emphasizes that “in psychology, the most adequate and well-established description of the tendency to maintain the direction of activity or willingness to act in a certain direction is expressed in the term“ setting ”” [2, p. 4].

B.D. Parygin includes the installation: in the process of assimilation of social experience through knowledge; perception setting; installation, which means a willingness to act in accordance with a given value and the transition to motivation, that is, volitional effort to carry out actions [30, p. 351].

According to M.I. Dyachenko and L.A. Kandybovich, “readiness includes not only various kinds of conscious and unconscious attitudes to certain forms of reaction, but also awareness of the task, models of likely behavior, determination of optimal methods of activity, assessment of their capabilities in relation to upcoming requirements and the need to achieve a certain result” [13, from. 20].

So, it should be noted that attitude and willingness differ from each other in their psychological nature. The concept of psychological readiness is broader and includes the main components of the installation.

Thus, the theoretical study of attitudes as one of the mechanisms of regulation of personality behavior makes it possible to more deeply study the process of inclusion of a subject in a specific activity, and, therefore, to reveal the ways of formation and development of his readiness, active creative attitude to professional activity.

The need for the formation of psychological readiness for activity was emphasized by B.F. Lomov, noting that the preparation of the astronauts for the flight “is not limited to the development of a certain system of skills. It is necessary to form a future system of a cosmonaut with a certain system of psychological qualities - emotional stability, ability to self-regulation, as a whole - readiness for the duration of the flight, for isolation, for possible unexpected and stressful influences ”[26, p. 12].

There are significant developments in engineering psychology and labor psychology about the state of readiness for extreme actions and the vigilance of the operator. V.N. Pushkin and L.S. Nersesyan, in the course of a psychological analysis of the driver’s profession, identified “the main professionally important quality - the ability to maintain a high level of preparedness for extreme situations under long-term, monotonous effects” [36, p. 236], on which its trouble-free operation largely depends.

M.M. Filatova-Shueva notes that the state of readiness for action on a signal, the time of occurrence of which is not determined, in some cases is called vigilance [47, p. 21].

In engineering psychology, labor psychology, readiness is considered as the primary, fundamental condition for the successful implementation of any activity.

In educational psychology, the importance of taking into account the integrity of the personality in the study of the state of readiness for professional activity is noted. Это положение рассматривается как одно из главных методологических подходов при исследовании готовности, где доминирующие мотивы, составляющие направленность личности, их осознание, выделяются как наиболее благоприятные факторы формирования психологической готовности, а само формирование готовности к деятельности изучается как одно из средств совершенствования подготовки к будущей профессии.

A.A. Деркач считает, что основой состояния готовности является главным образом проявление личностных особенностей субъекта, представляющих собой систему, включающую мотивационный, волевой, интеллектуальный, эмоциональный и психомоторный компоненты. «Формирование готовности обозначает образование системы таких мотивов, отношений, установок, черт личности, накопление знаний, умений, навыков, которые, активизируясь, обеспечивают воспитателю возможность эффективно выполнять свои функции» [10, с. 19].

В исследованиях М.С. Малешиной отмечено, что наиболее часто понятие готовности к деятельности связывается (или даже отождествляется) с понятием профпригодности и рассматривается как наличие качеств, необходимых и достаточно развитых (сформированных) для успешного выполнения какой-то конкретной деятельности или, другими словами, для успешной работы по данной специальности в рамках определенной профессии.

Иными словами, готовность включает пригодность, предполагающую способности, в сочетании с положительным отношением к деятельности и целенаправленной тренировкой, в результате которой индивидуум овладевает знаниями, умениями и навыками, достаточными и необходимыми для успешного участия в выбранной деятельности.

Готовность немыслима без пригодности, а пригодность может перерасти в готовность только в процессе деятельности (тренировки, подготовки), на основе прошлых знаний и навыков…

Понятие «пригодность» к обучению или вообще к выполнению соответствующего вида деятельности является психологически более объемным, чем понятие «готовность» (М.С. Малешина, М.К. Кабардов, Э.А. Голубева), которая сводится в основном к наличным знаниям, умениям и навыкам. В понятие «пригодность» помимо этого включаются и факторы способности к той или иной деятельности [28, с. 48-53].

В исследованиях Р.И. Пеньковой готовность к деятельности классного руководителя студентов педагогического института исследуется в личностном плане, как сложное образование, проявляющееся «как потенциальное качество личности специалиста» [31, с. 21]. Она отмечает, что «основными компонентами структуры готовности являются теоретические и методические знания, профессиональные и прикладные умения, положительное отношение к работе...» [31, с. 12], где определяющим компонентом в структуре готовности является положительное отношение к деятельности.

A.G. Сороковой изучал состояние готовности в работе с людьми как целостное проявление личности, исследуя мотивационный, волевой, интеллектуальный, эмоциональный и поведенческий компоненты состояния готовности студента к деятельности по формированию и развитию коллектива. В качестве насущных задач подготовки руководителей уже в период обучения в вузе он рекомендовал «углубление мотивации предстоящей руководящей деятельности, привитие навыков волевой саморегуляции, формирование умения принимать удовлетворительные (оптимальные) решения [41, с. 29]. Он считал, что в совокупности эти три элемента составляют основу состояния готовности к руководящей деятельности.

В военной психологии имеется значительный исследовательский материал по проблеме психологической готовности к воинской деятельности. Военные психологи, изучая и исследуя психологические закономерности, проявляющиеся в деятельности военнослужащих и воинских коллективов в различных условиях (службы, боевой учебы, современной войны и боя) дают рекомендации по формированию психологической подготовленности, устойчивости и готовности к выполнению боевых и служебных задач в современных условиях.

Психологический анализ проблемы показал, что ее общетеоретические и методологические идеи, прикладные наработки в наибольшей мере раскрыты в трудах по военной психологии А.В. Барабанщикова, М.И. Дьяченко, А.Д. Глоточкина, Л.А. Кандыбовича, М.П. Коробейникова, В.А. Пономаренко, А.М. Столяренко, А.Ф. Шикуна, В.Л. Марищука, В.Т. Юсова, В.В. Сысоева, П.А. Корчемного и др. В их исследованиях определяется сущность психологической готовности, устойчивости, подготовленности, подчеркивается актуальность изучения их развития.

Проблему психологической готовности к деятельности одним из первых в военной психологии изучали М.И. Дьяченко, Л.А. Кандыбович и В.А. Пономаренко. Психологическую готовность к деятельности они определяют как психическое состояние, являющееся выражением совокупности интеллектуальных, мотивационных и волевых сторон психики. Рассматривая готовность к профессиональной деятельности как сложное динамическое образование, эти исследователи отмечают, что она формируется в процессе профессионального отбора и профессиональной ориентации абитуриентов, в период профессионального обучения. Высокий уровень готовности к профессиональной деятельности должен соответствовать окончанию обучения в вузе и началу профессиональной деятельности. Они выделяют два вида готовности: общую, или длительную и временную, или ситуативную, выступающие в диалектической взаимосвязи и взаимозависимости.

«В самом общем виде, – отмечают М.И. Дьяченко и Л.А. Кандыбович, – общая готовность представляет собой структуру, в которую входят:

1. Положительное отношение к тому или иному виду деятельности, профессии.

2. Адекватные требованиям деятельности и профессии черты характера, темперамент, мотивация.

3. Необходимые знания, навыки, умения.

4. Устойчивые профессионально важные особенности восприятия, внимания, мышления, эмоциональных и волевых процессов [13, с. 20].

Временное состояние готовности отражает особенности и требования предстоящей ситуации, создает психологические условия для успешных действий в определенный момент. «Ситуативная готовность – это динамичное целостное состояние личности, внутренняя настроенность на определенное поведение, мобилизованность всех сил на активные и целесообразные действия. Ее возникновение и оформление определяются пониманием задачи, осознанием ответственности, желанием добиться успеха, установлением порядка предстоящей работы и т. д. [13, с. 51].

Однако если М.И. Дьяченко в исследовании делает выводы о том, что психологическая готовность служит индивиду успешно выполнять свои обязанности, правильно использовать свои знания, опыт, личные качества, сохранять самоконтроль и перестраивать свою деятельность при появлении непредвиденных препятствии [12, с. 34-38], то Л.А. Кандыбович отмечает, что «состояние готовности необходимо для успешных действий в ближайшее время» [16, с. 156-174].

В.А. Пономаренко в психологическую готовность включает две составляющие:

• психофизиологическую устойчивость, обусловленную состоянием организма;

• психологическую устойчивость, обусловленную профессиональной подготовкой и общим функциональным уровнем психологических свойств личности (сюда входят специфическая подготовленность к действиям в нестандартных ситуациях, способность к оперативному мышлению, к срочной актуализации знаний для принятия решения, наличие высокой мотивации и установки на благополучный исход, чувство долга и ответственности) [33, с. 64].

N.F. Феденко считает, что готовность выражает стремление воина заниматься своей непосредственной деятельностью и формируется всей системой обучения и воинского воспитания, организацией психологической подготовки. Он разработал также рекомендации по дальнейшему исследованию содержания психологической готовности к деятельности, предложив ряд условий ее формирования у будущих военных специалистов, таких, например, как формирование установки на работу с людьми, представлений о социальных ситуациях и др. [46, с. 42–43].

Обобщенный анализ психологической готовности сделал А.М. Столяренко. В его работах определяется «общая готовность» и «состояние готовности в данный момент», которые по содержанию и уровню должны отвечать решаемым задачам.
He notes that, depending on the features of the pre-setting at the beginning of the work, the pre-working state can also be characterized as a state of readiness (the most effective form of the pre-working reactions of the body that ensures the best working capacity in the upcoming activity). An important point is that the basis of the state of readiness is a conscious desire to cope with a task, difficulties, and to be at the height of all requirements.

V.V. Sysoev conducted research on the identification of external and internal indicators of readiness for landing as a special mental state, establishing optimal readiness, lowered readiness and unreadiness for landing, as well as moments of optimal mobilization of all forces [43, p. 257-276].

He defines psychological readiness as an integral state of the personality, as the mood and mobilization of the warrior's psyche to overcome the difficulties of training, combat and other activities that ensure his performance.

He introduced the concept of "stable psychological readiness", which he sees as a combination of the psychological qualities of an individual and a collective, formed by all the life experiences of a warrior, as well as in overcoming the difficulties of combat training.

P.A. Korchemny notes that “in the course of preparation for warfare, psychological preparedness is required to the maximum extent possible, in which the leading place is occupied by the motivational, cognitive, intellectual and motor components” [19, p. 152].

L.N. Kuznetsov concludes that the state of mental readiness of a warrior for combat activity is closely interconnected with his professional readiness. Professional preparedness is, in his opinion, that base, the basis on which "mental readiness" can grow. In turn, the state of mental readiness is a condition for the manifestation of the level of professional preparedness in a particular situation, which has relative independence [23, p. 98].

He believes that the “core” of the warrior’s state of mental readiness for active hostilities is unity:

• awareness of the importance of their active, effective military operations;

• states of self-confidence;

• states of determination.

In the works of V.I. Varvarova and V.T. Yusov determined the ratio of psychological readiness with preparedness [4, p. 43-45].

Preparedness is a complex of knowledge, skills, abilities and professional qualities. So, psychological readiness is only a part of preparedness [44].

A.V. Moshchenko, studying the psychological readiness of the Suvorovites to study at universities of the Armed Forces, came to the conclusion that it should be understood as a holistic manifestation of personality that ensures the transition from the conditions of training at the Suvorov military school to study at universities with the lowest psychological stress.

The development of psychological readiness of Suvorovites to study at universities is characterized by a predominance of motivational and volitional components [29, p. 9].

V.F. Dubyaga defines psychological readiness as the systemic state of psychological resources of a person (individual mental processes, properties, conditions, formations) that provide for the regulation of activities before the performance of military-combat missions, during and after completion. The structure of the psychological readiness of warriors of the operational units is the unity of several levels of readiness: personal-semantic, situational-target and operational-executive [11, pp. 11-12].

Faris R. Kirkland, Paul T. Bartone, David T. Marlow were engaged in the development of the content of psychological readiness abroad.

They proceeded from the fact that psychological readiness includes all human dimensions (both individually and socially): morale, morale, discipline, confidence, physical fitness and mentality. These researchers examined the impact of the commander's priorities on psychological readiness.

In the US armed forces, studies on the effects of human factors and psychological preparedness on combat readiness began in the 1970s. For the first time, these studies were carried out by the Council of Commanders of the Continental Aviation Command under the leadership of Brigadier General Henry Emerson and the US Military College.

These developments argue that the commander's priorities (which are expressed in his behavior) affect the self-esteem of subordinates and the fulfillment of their duties. The total number of subordinates who were affected by these priorities is an indicator of psychological readiness. Psychological readiness, in turn, has an impact on the activities of the unit as a whole [58, p. 579-598].

As a result of a survey of military personnel, 9 most significant factors were identified that are indicators of psychological readiness: 1) the general climate in the company, 2) vertical dependence, 3) horizontal dependence, 4) trust in commanders, 5) general standard of living, 6) physical / mental health , 7) self-confidence / weapon; 8) job satisfaction; 9) life satisfaction in general.

An analysis of the scientific literature on “psychological readiness” for professional activity shows that its various aspects, numerous interpretations and definitions can be combined due to the fact that in them “readiness” is considered as a special mental state, which is an integral manifestation of the personality. And accounting for the integrity of the individual is one of the main methodological requirements for scientific research in the system of "subject in professional activity".

The theoretical and methodological basis of the psychological preparation of the subject for professional activity, its principles and content have been developed since 1967 at the Military Command Academy of Air Defense named after Marshal of the Soviet Union G.K. Zhukov (Air Defense Forces).

To carry out the indicated research work, the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Defense Forces of the country, Marshal of the Soviet Union P.F. Batitsky, by his order, decided to set up the All-Russian Military Aviation Research Institute, as the country's leading university of air defense. In 1971, the Sixth All-Union Scientific and Practical Conference of the country's air defense universities on this issue was held at the Air Defense Forces. Since 1986, these studies have been carried out at Tver State University. Since 1988, the Zonal Inter-University Research Laboratory for Sociological and Socio-Psychological Research has been operating at TvSU, and since 1990, the dissertation council, specializing in 19.00.03 - labor psychology, engineering psychology, ergonomics, in which 130 doctors have already defended and candidates of psychological sciences.

Based on the research of A.F. Shikun [52; fifty; 51] and A.A. Shikun [54; 49], dissertations [55; 18; 9; 48; 15, 20; 40] and publications [53; 35; 27; 14, p.61], in relation to students studying the course “PVTS KV” in the context of studying at a university, we will define the definitions, content, principles, system, methodology and program of their psychological preparation.

The psychological preparation of the student is a purposeful process of forming psychological preparedness as the most important, complex, sustainable personal education, which is crucial for the successful fulfillment of the driver’s functional duties, both in ordinary and in difficult and dangerous conditions.

To do this, you must be prepared to withstand the strong effects of stressors on your feelings, will and intellect, in other words, the driver must be able to control his psyche, have psychological stability and readiness for active action in any situations of activity. All this necessitates a special, purposeful formation of the student’s professional and psychological preparedness.

Psychological training as a permanent component of training and education has its own characteristics, specific laws, principles, and this is where its relative independence is manifested.

First, psychological preparation is a process aimed at forming the psychological readiness of a specialist for professional activity.

Secondly, the process of psychological preparation is more complex and difficult than the learning process: it is much easier to form and reveal knowledge, skills, and abilities than to instill positive motives for behavior and activity, develop psychological stability, develop and consolidate mental functions and mental formations according to professional requirements .

Thirdly, it has its own characteristics in the planning, implementation and identification of results.

Fourth, psychological training is carried out, on the one hand, taking into account the individual psychological characteristics of specialists, and on the other, it solves the problem of psychological compatibility in the formation and coherence of teams as a single, integral organism.

All this significantly affects the entire process of psychological preparation, its organization, content and methodology.

Psychological training significantly increases the effectiveness of comprehensive training for the national economy and education in general, accelerates the formation of high moral and psychological qualities. The effectiveness of the processes of education and training is increased. It is associated with certain reorganizations of mental mechanisms, designed to ensure the release of higher mental functions from the negative effects of tension, maintaining their effectiveness, functioning in any situations and conditions of activity.

The psychological preparation of a specialist is to develop and improve the necessary mental processes, conditions and qualities, taking into account the characteristics of his activity. As a process, it is considered as a focused work on the formation, first of all, of psychological stability and readiness for successful activity. Its main result is the psychological preparedness of a specialist, based on his ideological and moral preparedness and formed from a system of knowledge, skills, abilities, as well as personal qualities.

A particularly important component of a specialist’s psychological preparedness is his psychological stability, which manifests itself in maintaining the normal functioning of mental processes and the appropriate use of experience and intuition in any environment. Psychological preparedness also includes the psychological readiness of a specialist - installation, mobilization, “attitude” to fulfill future tasks.

The development and severity of these elements, as well as their integrity, unity are the criteria for a high level of psychological preparedness of a specialist (driver). Their insufficient severity is defined as the incompleteness of its formation, as its average or low level.

The theoretical components of psychological preparation include significant, stable relationships, principles and methods of its organization and conduct, criteria for determining its effectiveness, aimed at the personality of a specialist with the aim of developing motivation, the necessary qualities and experience, his psychological preparedness.

Based on the doctrine of the unity of personality and activity, and taking into account the logical relationships between the conditions of professional activity, typical moral and psychological difficulties experienced by specialists in the process of performing functional duties between different situations and requirements for the activity and personality of a specialist, between the main content of the activity and goals, objectives , the forms and methods of psychological preparation, as well as the connections caused by human interactions with technology, we have revealed the essence sihologicheskoy training. It consists in the following: the specialist’s activity is specific depending on the functions, specialty, position, types and conditions of the situation; goals, objectives, forms and methods of psychological preparation have their own characteristics, aimed both at separate structures and at all the specialist’s activities in order to form his psychological readiness for active actions in modern conditions.

The basic principles of psychological preparation are:

• determination, specificity, flexibility and activity; the correspondence of means and methods of psychological preparation to the nature of the main functions, specialties and specialist categories;

• taking into account typical types and conditions of activity that cause characteristic moral and psychological difficulties;

• analysis of the results of psychological training and predicting the effectiveness of the specialist.

The stages of the formation of the psychological preparedness of the student driver of the vehicle are:

1. Assimilation of information about the conditions and tasks that must be performed in the process of training for driving a car;

2. Formation and updating of positive motivation of activity (feelings of understanding responsibility for the performance of professional tasks);

3. The accumulation of experience in conditions close to real.

As a generalized criterion for the effectiveness of psychological preparation, it is advisable to use an integrated assessment of the ideological, moral and psychological qualities of the personality of a university graduate.

Improving the effectiveness and quality of psychological training can be done by introducing into the educational process a system of psychological training and implementing favorable prerequisites that contribute to the formation of students' psychological stability and readiness.

Consider the nature, content and structure of the psychological training system as an integral part of the comprehensive training of specialists. It involves the definition of goals, objectives, principles, methods and forms, methods of psychological preparation; planning, organizing and conducting this training; the development of specific activities for psychological preparation and their implementation in the educational process; assessment of the level of psychological preparedness according to relevant criteria.

The main components of the system of psychological training of specialists are the purposeful organization of psychological training; specific activities developed and implemented in the educational process, as well as the methodology of psychological preparation of students during classes in social sciences, psychological and pedagogical disciplines, physical training and sports. Psychological training at the university provides for the implementation of a comprehensive professional psychological selection of applicants, the study and analysis of the results of this preparation, the creation of a special course in the basics of psychological training and a research laboratory on these problems, and organizational and staffing events.

The complex of interconnected and systematically implemented measures for psychological training includes the conditions of study, theoretical training, development of skills and psychological and pedagogical orientation of the educational process.

Important components of the system are the scientific organization of pedagogical work and the control system (“feedback”), with the help of which timely correction of the pedagogical process is carried out, the dynamics of the development of psychological qualities of the educated person are identified, and quantitative and qualitative characteristics of psychological preparedness for each student are compiled. To this end, the algorithm “The Map of the Dynamics of the Student's Moral and Psychological Qualities” has been developed and is being introduced into the educational process, an algorithm by which automated processing of statistical data of maps on a computer, and training and control equipment is carried out.

An analysis of the results of experimental work shows that the system of psychological training for the national economy and education should be based on an integrated approach, uniform principles, as well as on the use of special psychologically sound and pedagogically effective techniques and methods.

The effectiveness of the proposed system of psychological preparation of students largely depends on the implementation of a set of measures in the educational process (measures on theoretical preparation, development of skills, psychological and pedagogical orientation of the pedagogical process), on the quality of selection of candidates for university students, the level of implementation in the educational the process of psychological aspects of the scientific organization of pedagogical work, from studying the course "Fundamentals of psychological preparation of students in the process of cheniya in high school. "

Опыт применения «Карт динамики морально-психологических качеств студентов» как элемента пролонгированного отбора показывает, что на протяжении всего обучения и воспитания студентов в вузе обеспечивается большая продуктивность психологической подготовки у тех обучаемых, у которых был выше показатель успешности обучения.

Внедрение в практику научной организации труда профессорско-преподавательского состава способствует повышению роли личного примера воспитателя в осуществлении психологической подготовки студентов. Анализ опыта проведения психологической подготовки показал, что чем более работоспособен преподаватель, тем больше у него возможностей осуществлять психологическую подготовку обучаемых в различных условиях их деятельности. Продуктивность работы профессорско-преподавательского состава и студентов в значительной степени определяется психологическими и психофизиологическими характеристиками и особенностями каждого обучающего и обучаемого, а также выполнением ими рекомендаций по оптимальной организации рабочих мест и их оборудованию с учетом психологических, санитарно-гигиенических, педагогических и эстетических требований; созданием рационального цветового оформления и оптимального светового климата аудиторий; организацией рационального распорядка дня и режима питания преподавателей и студентов; внедрением психофизической подготовки по гимнастике сосудов головного мозга и борьбе с гиподинамией.

Рассматриваемые методики и программы психологической подготовки кадров для народного хозяйства и образования были апробированы в учебно-воспитательном процессе вузов г. Твери. Было показано, что они способствовали более четкому и качественному планированию и проведению занятий по психолого-педагогическим, специальным дисциплинам, по физической подготовке, а также по подготовке к управлению автомобилем. В ходе занятий при изучении того или иного раздела курса решались конкретные задачи психологической подготовки, что содействовало процессу формирования у студентов психологической готовности к работе и устойчивости в сложных условиях будущей профессиональной деятельности.

При анализе применения разработанной системы психологической подготовки студентов вузов было выявлено, что в результате ее внедрения эффективность и качество подготовки кадров для народного хозяйства по основным критериям повысились на 13–20 %, а 93 % студентов показали рост морально-психологических качеств и высокую психологическую подготовленность.

Остановимся также на теоретико-методологических положениях и прикладном значении профессионально-психологической подготовки (ППП), на ее развитие в системе органов внутренних дел РФ.

Разработка и экспериментальная апробация психологически обоснованной педагогической системы специальной профессионально-психологической подготовки была осуществлена в органах внутренних дел РФ в 1982–1985 гг. С 1989 г. она была введена в качестве обязательной дисциплины в первоначальную профессиональную подготовку молодых сотрудников, а затем – при подготовке сотрудников ОМОН и СОБР [42; 3].

ППП сотрудников специальных подразделений органов внутренних дел Российской Федерации это – система и комплекс мероприятий, направленных на формирование и закрепление у личного состава психологической устойчивости и готовности, преимущественно на основе

самосовершенствования личностных и развития профессионально важных качеств, приобретения опыта успешных действий в моделируемых экстремальных условиях служебно-боевой обстановки. ППП предусматривает проведение в единстве морально-психологической и профессионально-психологической подготовки, а последняя, помимо формирования психологической устойчивости и готовности, ориентируется:

• на повышение надежности профессиональных навыков и умений, обеспечение их качественного функционирования при высокой психической напряженности в ситуациях;

• формирование умений и навыков использования психологических средств (речи, неречевых и поведенческих) и приемов (составления психологического портрета, психологического наблюдения, визуальной психодиагностики, установления психологического контакта, правомерного психологического воздействия и др.) при решении психологически трудных правоохранительных задач;

• профессиональное развитие важных для действий в экстремальных условиях психологических качеств (частных профессиональных способностей – профессиональной наблюдательности, профессиональной памяти, профессионального мышления и др.);

• формирование умения владеть собой и волевых качеств.

Результатом ППП должно стать формирование индивидуальных особенностей и профессионально важных качеств (ПВК) личности сотрудника, включающих три основных компонента:

личностный (физическое здоровье, эмоциональная устойчивость, эмпатия, общительность, умение устанавливать психологический контакт с разными людьми, низкая внушаемость, способность к суггестии, честность, добросовестность, ответственность, организованность, дисциплинированность, смелость, решительность, настойчивость, самообладание, выдержка, склонность к разумному риску и агрессивности);

сенсорно-перцептивный (выносливость, координация движений, ловкость, скорость и точность сенсомоторных реакций, точный динамический и статический глазомер, острота зрения, точность цветоощущений, достаточный объем внимания, способность концентрировать, распределять и переключать внимание, его избирательность и устойчивость, наблюдательность – умение подмечать незначительные изменения в объекте, выбирать при наблюдении значимые данные);

интеллектуальный (быстрое запоминание информации, развитая зрительная и слуховая память, способность прогнозировать ход событий, находить несколько возможных вариантов решения, умение принимать решение в условиях дефицита времени и информации, логичность мышления, быстрая ориентировка в незнакомой местности, сообразительность, интуиция, умение кратко, логично и четко выражать свои мысли).

Основная задача ППП – целенаправленное формирование и закрепление у сотрудников специальных подразделений ОВД психических образов модели их предстоящих действий (чем большее количество предстоящих психических образов, максимально соответствующих боевой обстановке, мы сформируем у сотрудников, тем меньше вероятность их попадания в ситуацию неопределенности, неизвестности, которая, как правило, влечет за собой срабатывание у человека пассивно-оборонительного рефлекса, а следовательно, неадекватные действия).

Методами ППП являются словесные (объяснения, определение, убеждение, внушение) и практические:

• упражнения и тренировки на специальных тренажерах, имитаторах, учебных полях;

• физические и спортивные упражнения по преодолению специальных полос препятствий, заграждений, завалов, водных рубежей;

• специальные спортивные игры и состязания;

• психологические упражнения для целенаправленного развития познавательных, эмоциональных и волевых качеств;

• психологический тренинг по созданию коллектива, формированию совместимости, взаимозаменяемости и др.

Таким образом, ППП к служебной деятельности строится на основе комплексного воздействия на сознание, подсознание, психическое и физическое состояние сотрудников органов внутренних дел РФ с целью обеспечения выполнения служебно-боевой задачи, снижения потерь личного состава, формирования и укрепления их психической устойчивости, профилактики возникновения и преодоления последствий посттравматического боевого стресса.

Наилучшие результаты формирования психологической подготовленности достигаются в том случае, если в ходе всей повседневной деятельности по организации ППП усилия будут направляться на формирование как понятийного, так и образного основ модели предстоящих служебно-боевых действий.

Итак, основа психолого-педагогической концепции ППП – акцент на прикладное обучение, не только формирование знаний, но и практическое обучение их применению; развитие профессиональных и личностных качеств. Такой подход к подготовке и описанные задачи существенно отличают всю ее систему, определяя особенности отбора, содержания, форм, методов, обеспечения и др.

На основе вышеизложенного можно сделать следующие выводы.

1. Проведенный психологический анализ по проблеме готовности специалистов к профессиональной деятельности показывает, что ее уровень и развитие в не меньшей степени, чем индивидуально-психологическими качествами, обусловлены особенностями и условиями, в которых эта деятельность происходит.

2. Изучая содержание профессиональной деятельности автоводителя, мы придерживались понимания закономерностей психической жизни индивидуума, нашедшие свое отражение в субъектно-деятельностном подходе, как ведущем принципе отечественной психологии.
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Professional and psychological preparedness for activity as a psychological problem

  1. Shikun A.F., Shikun A.A., Skotnikov M.V. Professional and psychological preparedness for activity as a psychological problem, 2007
    Based on the study of general psychological and military-theoretical sources, a psychological analysis of theoretical and practical studies of the nature and dynamics of the development of psychological preparedness for professional activity is carried out, the concepts of its categories such as psychological readiness, stability, preparedness and their relationship with the specifics of a particular activity are examined.
  2. Psychological counseling as a professional activity of a psychologist
    Psychological counseling is one of the common types of professional work of a psychologist. People turn to a consultant for psychological help, advice for overcoming difficulties in various situations of everyday life. The purpose of the counseling psychologist is to help people safely resolve life crises, increase their ability to solve problems, and accept
  3. Professional orientation as a socio-economic and psychological problem
    The problem of choosing a profession has been known since ancient times. Back in the middle of the third millennium BC, ancient graduates of schools where scribes were trained were tested in Ancient Babylon, and in ancient China there was already a system for testing the abilities of people who wanted to take the posts of government officials. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato noted: “... people are born not too similar to each other
  4. “Psychological analysis of the professional activity of the educational psychologist as an objective basis for readiness formation”
    In chapter II, based on the basic principle of the primacy of the model of activity in professional development, a psychological analysis of the practical psychology of education as a sphere of professional labor is carried out. The logic and content of this chapter was determined by the system-activity approach to the study of professional activity based on the leading ideas of the analysis of the psychological structure of activity (E.M.
  5. Psychological knowledge and psychological practice in the context of the professional activity of a psychologist
    Science and practice are two closely interconnected and at the same time significantly different spheres of social practice. Therefore, the use of the results of scientific knowledge in the practical activities of any specialist is far from a simple process due to the interaction of practitioners who carry out certain activities (be it management, training or
  6. Criteria for the effectiveness of psychological work and professional activities of a psychologist in a military unit
    The problem of improving the system of criteria for assessing the professional activity of a psychologist is due to the insufficient use of adequate means in everyday practice, which provide an objective identification of the degree to which his professional competence and work results correspond to the standards of the profession. Existing regulatory documents defining the main parameters of psychological
  7. Theoretical analysis of the problem of professional orientation in psychological literature
    In general psychological theories of personality, orientation acts as a quality that determines its psychological makeup. In different concepts, this characteristic is revealed in different ways: - "dynamic trend"; - "sense-forming motive"; - "main life orientation"; - "dynamic organization of the" essential forces of "man", etc. But no matter how this personality trait
  8. Criteria for the effectiveness of psychological work and professional activities of a psychologist in a military unit
    The problem of improving the system of criteria for assessing the professional activity of a psychologist in a military unit is due to the insufficient use in everyday practice of adequate means to ensure an objective identification of the degree to which the psychologist’s professional competence and the results of his work correspond to the profession standards. Existing regulatory documents defining the main
  9. Practical psychological work as a type of activity of psychologists
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  11. Training in psychological knowledge as a type of activity of psychologists
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  12. The influence of the professional activities of astronauts on their psychological properties and qualities
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  13. Factors of the effectiveness of group activity as a socio-psychological process
    Taking into account the results of socio-psychological studies in domestic and foreign science (D. Kretsch, R. Kratchifld, E. Belchi, HH Obozov, R. S. Hemov, A. V. Petrovsky, A. I. Dontsov and others), may several groups of factors of the effectiveness of joint activity can be distinguished, many of which are the main components of the structure of the psychology of a military collective: I. Primary factors: (Act as
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  15. Disadaptive manifestations in military personnel with PTSD as a socio-psychological problem
    The consequences of hostilities for a soldier’s personality could be much weaker if it were not for the emerging negative public opinion regarding former combatants. Public opinion is formed in close dependence on the scale of the military conflict. An analysis of the psychological aspects of the first and second world wars shows that “with the outbreak of military events of this kind
  16. Faith and atheism in war as a socio-psychological problem
    In the history of Russia, the army’s connection with the church has always been strong enough, starting with the blessing by Sergius of Radonezh of Dmitry Donskoy to the fight against the Mongol Tatars and the participation of the monks of Peresvet and Oslyaby in the Battle of Kulikovo. Faces of saints on the battle flags of the Russian armies, icons of the Mother of God in decisive battles, including the Battle of Borodino, are all facts of the same order. Under Peter I, the institute
  17. Acmeological problems of using socio-psychological reserves in the professional self-realization of legal workers
    The worldview of a lawyer includes the principles of life, which determine the nature of the activities of people involved in legal work. Their worldview is the core of social and individual consciousness. The formation of the worldview of a lawyer is an important process for our society. In a huge problem field of modern human science stood out, gained recognition and is developing intensively
  18. Countering the psychological operations of the enemy as a task of psychological support of modern combat
    The history of wars and armed conflicts convincingly confirms the fact that they are waged, won and lost by people, and not by airplanes, bombs, tanks. The course and outcome of the battles is to a decisive extent determined by how mobilized and directed the spiritual and physical capabilities of the soldiers. Even in ancient times, the most talented commanders understood that to achieve victory over the enemy
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