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Psychological analysis of factors and conditions affecting the performance of young military personnel with stuck characterological accentuation and the possibility of providing them with psychological assistance
In the first chapter, an attempt was made to examine the theoretical foundations of character in modern psychology. One of the most important conclusions of the chapter was the statement about the relative constancy of character and its change under the influence of the environment, social environment, age-related changes. The typology of accentuations of K.Leongard's character allows us to distinguish among young servicemen groups with similar characteristics with pronounced features and to organize psychotherapeutic work with them. Stuck accentuates due to the persistence of affective states and the explicit orientation of the individual towards himself in conditions of accelerated socialization in a unit may be in conflict with the norms of service and group.
To verify the theoretical positions was conducted reciting experiment. The main hypothesis of the experiment was the assumption that young servicemen with stuck accentuation tend to have low efficiency, the level of representation in character depends on certain social and psychological factors (family, place of residence before being drafted into the Armed Forces, education), combinations and the mutual influence of other features, as well as a drastic change in living conditions associated with a call up for active military service.
Based on the main hypothesis, several particular hypotheses were formulated:
• stuck accentuation is most represented among military men called up from urban areas, having an incomplete family and a low educational level;
• stuck accentuates, as a rule, at the first stage of military service have low efficiency of military activities, conscription is a significant affecting factor for stuck accentuates and contributes to its durability, which leads to further actualization of the negative features of the accentuant, its focus on itself, rejection and aggression towards others, low efficiency of military labor.
• the more character traits are in the range of vivid manifestation (accentuated) in the presence of a stuck one, the more likely the low effectiveness of the activity of a young soldier.
The experiment was carried out in several stages with military personnel of military unit 83420, called up from May to June 1997. From 19 to 144 people aged 18–19 were involved in the survey.
The venue was the point of permanent deployment in / h83420 (Moscow).
To measure changes in the qualitative characteristics of the personality of young servicemen, the following were used: a test - questionnaire of Shmishek character accentuations (Appendices 1, 2); an expert survey with the completion of the evaluation form “Assessment of the effectiveness of the activities of military personnel” (Appendix 3), completed by the unit commanders; “Archival method” (biographical). The time intervals of the experiment - June 1997 - January 1998. The survey was conducted according to the following scheme:
conducting an ascertaining experiment.
The data obtained during the use of the above-mentioned methods were entered into the “Summary statement of the experiment” (Appendix 4).
The study of stuck accentuation is impossible without determining the conditions and factors affecting the individual characteristics of military personnel, their behavior, and the effectiveness of their activities. Despite the decisive influence of individual personality characteristics, incl. and character, on the behavior of a soldier, there are certain common signs, factors and conditions present in the living space of a given person.
First of all, it is necessary to identify the typical features inherent in all young military personnel (18-20 years old) due to their age development and taken into account when analyzing and interpreting research data:
* the physical maturation of the body ends and most of the physiological and psycho-physiological functions reach the peak of their capabilities. This period, according to B.G.Ananyev1, in comparison with other ages, is characterized by the lowest values of the latent period of reactions to simple, combined and verbal signals, by the optimism of absolute and differential sensitivity, the highest efficiency of operational memory, switching attention, solving verbal-logical tasks plasticity in the formation of motor and other skills;
* At the same time, youth is one of the most difficult periods of a person’s life, the period of changing social roles, the transition from child dependence to adult status with his rights and responsibilities, the increasing relevance of the problem of gender relations and due to priority changes in the body, professional activity, etc. At this time, as a rule, the properties associated with childhood and adolescence disappear. Rejected many children's hobbies, forms of communication, manners. But quite often at this stage, some external demonstrative forms of adulthood appear - smoking, drug use, cynicism, condescension in communication, reticence, jargonism, criminogenic communication;
* It should be borne in mind that adolescence is a transitional period in the dynamics of a person’s personal development and is characterized by instability of mental state and behavior. This is a time of fundamental transformations in the inner world of a person, in the general structure of his individual psychological characteristics. KD Ushinsky believed: “It is here that the formation of individual chains of representations ends, and if not all of them, then a significant part of them is grouped into one network, long enough to give a decisive preponderance to one or another direction in the person’s thinking and character ."one
Thus, the characteristics of this age are characterized by bright inconsistency and is at the stage of decisive transformations, they require qualified psychological assistance. We identified favorable constitutional (internal) psychological factors and risks affecting the development of a young man, which should be taken into account in the study (Table 2):
Briefly describe one of the most important external factors affecting the manifestation of individual personality traits in the call-up service:
• increased psychological tension;
• lack of time to perform the tasks of military service and life support;
• complication of activity algorithms;
• specificity of goals, objectives;
• high interdependence and “publicity” of service;
• functional significance and responsibility of the activity.
Getting used to new conditions, the formation of new dynamic stereotypes, new organization of activities, typical behavioral characteristics with individual manifestations of specific personality traits of military personnel, social and psychological, material and environmental factors raise the problem of adaptation.
Since the problem of adaptation, its analysis and specificity does not lie in the field of research of the work, its essence and content will not be considered in detail. Let us give the definition of adaptation, which is accepted in Russian military psychology: "... psychological adaptation of young warriors is a special case of human adaptation to new environmental conditions (social environment) and representing the process of bringing the subject of adaptation into optimal correspondence and balance with the requirements of a specific military service environment .
When stability is violated (entering military service), mismatch occurs between the subject and the object in the system, which leads to functional disorder, loss of the integrity of the subject’s life-perception. As a result, an adaptive situation arises when a system or its individual elements tend to restore equilibrium. ”1
The dynamics of the transition from the mental norm to possible psychopathological states of different levels and its connection with acceptance in the conditions of the adaptive situation are presented in (Appendix 5).
The most important characteristic of adaptation is activity efficiency. The psychological component of it, according to L. I. Umansky, is:
• social - psychological maturity;
• social activity; personalities;
• forms of organization of activities;
• features of the functioning of individual spheres of life;
• state of the level of development of group relations and role composition.2
Thus, in the conditions of military service, the following indicators of the effectiveness of the activities of a young soldier can be distinguished:
• success of practical activities;
• the degree of realization of intrapersonal potential; personality integration into the military collective, the presence and level of disagreement of personal and collective values, status in the group, credibility, acceptance (rejection) of the intragroup goal;
• ability to control and manage social situation;
• Tolerance to failure and interference activities;
• the ability to constructively resolve unexpected difficulties;
• adequacy of self-esteem.
On the basis of the above provisions, as well as other sources2, a questionnaire was drawn up for peer review of performance, proposed to be filled by full-time platoon commanders after the briefing (Annex 3).
Consider the distribution of indicators among military personnel surveyed in the course of a recital experiment 3 (Table 3).
Socio - demographic data of the examined servicemen
After analyzing the basic data obtained in the course of studying the social and biographical data of young servicemen, the author concludes that, in general, these indicators confirm the general situation with the recruiting contingent of the RF Armed Forces, characterized by a low educational qualification of young people, a significant increase in the number of conscripts from incomplete families4 the predominance of people from rural areas. Thus, our assumption about the representativeness of the sample is indirectly confirmed by the representation of representatives of all categories of social groups in the survey. In analyzing the sample, the aspect of material well-being was not taken into account due to the vagueness of the criteria for its evaluation. Consider the distribution of the severity of accentuation identified at the first stage of the experiment and variations of mixed types of accentuations of young warriors. (Tables 4,5)
Distribution of severity of accentuations by type during the survey at the 1st stage of the experiment
Table of mixed types of accentuations
We will conduct a preliminary statistical analysis of the results. First of all, it should be noted about a significant proportion of young servicemen with pronounced accentuated features in the total number of those called up for military service.
Taking into account the reliability of the sample from the general population of the numbers called up, it can be assumed that environmental factors (social, psychological, proper environmental ones) have a negative trend in modern conditions and affect the deepening of the severity of accentuations.
In the total volume of accentuated features, characterological accentuations prevail (49.31%), which indirectly confirms the author's assumption about the influence of external factors on the personality and, as a result, the correction of her behavior (character traits).
It should be noted about a significant number of mixed types of accentuations (31 people), and for some (6 people) a bright degree of accentuation manifests itself in 3 ways. Based on the theoretical provisions of the first chapter, these military personnel should be considered as “complex”, requiring special attention in organizing off educational work. The maximum number of mixed types form sticking, pedantic, anxious, cyclotypic accentuation, which allows with sufficient accuracy and specification to take into account the individual characteristics of military personnel and organize group work in terms of the psychologist to reduce the negative manifestations of accentuated features in everyday activities.
The most represented in the sample was stuck accentuation (38), demonstrative (14), alarming (18), cyclotypical (14). The prevalence of just such options with the specifics of their manifestation allows us to assume that 83420 there are some stereotypes, patterns, traditions, the study of which requires a separate study.
Consider the degree of dependence of the presence and severity of accentuated features on the socio-psychological, biographical and demographic factors, using the PPP "Statgraphics".
When checking the correlation dependence of the entered variables used in the survey, the following results were obtained on the line of stuck accentuation1 (Table 6):
Let us evaluate the statistical significance of the correlation coefficients of the relations of interest to us (jam - education; jam - family composition; jam - residence before being called up in the Armed Forces). The hypothesis being tested is whether the identified relationships can be transferred to the whole population, if yes then with what degree of authenticity.
When testing the hypothesis, H0 deviated in favor of H1, which indicates the statistical significance of the results obtained at the level of alfa = 0.05. Here is an example of a check - “stuck accentuation - family composition” (Table 7):
One-sample analysis results
Let us consider in more detail the results of the correlation analysis. (Taking into account that the value of the correlation coefficient in a sample of 30-40 people with a value already exceeding 0.35 indicates the importance of links with Alfa = 0.05, with a value in the range 0.1-0, 35 show a trend, and for values less than 0, 1, its absence) 1.
Significant indicators of the relationship found: stuck accentuation and place of residence before being called up in the Armed Forces - (0.5280) - directly proportional dependence, i.e. representatives of the urban population have a tendency to this accentuation, the family composition is (-0.5650), i.e. In single-parent families, this accentuation is more often formed. We did not confirm our assumption about the impact on the stuck level of education (0.328), because the coefficient shows only the tendency of the relationship between the two indicators, in which stuck accentuation is more likely in servicemen with completed secondary and higher education. Consequently, the particular hypothesis about the representation of stuck accentuation among military personnel from urban areas with an incomplete family was confirmed. Consequently, taking into account the typical features of young servicemen (citizens with an incomplete family), in connection with a stuck accentuation, it is possible to consider the main directions of providing them with psychological assistance:
Of course, that the behavior of a particular person is determined by a complex system of objective and subjective factors. Each person is the result of a unique peculiar combination of them. In this case, the influence of one factor can be compensated by the other. Therefore, we can only talk about their possible impact on behavior and stuck accentuation, and therefore possible options for the provision of psychotherapeutic assistance.
We proceed to review the results obtained in the second stage of the survey. At this stage, the author introduces a new variable - performance. Only military personnel with stuck accentuation were considered (38 people). During 4 months of service in units of the military unit 83420, the number of these accentuants did not change and the statistical indicators of this sample had the following parameters (Table 8.9):
Indicators of military personnel with stuck characterological accentuation
Comparative figures of stuck accentuation in young warriors
(Stage 1 / Stage 2 experiment)
Data analysis of the table allows us to draw some conclusions about the relationship of accentuation and performance.
The constant number of stuck accents indicates the relative stability of character traits from the influence of any factors and confirms the theoretical position of the first chapter on the significance of the influence of the Environment, which, in the case of its affecting directivity, leads to a sharpening of accentuation. This means that the conditions of military service for a stuck accentuate become a serious test, creating the effects of “uncomfortable surroundings”, contributing to the stabilization of accentuation, creating the prerequisites for antisocial behavior of the individual.
First of all, it should be noted that the presence of a mixed type of accented personality, as the survey shows, usually implies low efficiency of the activities of young soldiers during the period of adaptation to military service in the first 1-6 months (indicators RTR-11 out of 14; LIP-10 out of 14; SOP-12 of 14). Probably, there is a complicated “overlapping” of one accentuation on another, giving rise to a multivariate behavior. For example, a high correlation with excitable accentuation in stuck accentuates can lead to aggressive suspicion, vindictiveness, agility and uncontrollability while defending one's point of view, acute rejection of the collective. Situational perception of the “I” and its position can lead to acute deviant behavior and suicidal manifestations. Это требует глубокого изучения индивидуальных черт таких военнослужащих, снятие, гашение реакций возбуждения, тревоги, угрозы ролевому статусу, понижение его общего уровня, корректное побуждение к самокритичности поведения, ”волнообразности” (возвращения через определенный промежуток времени) к проблеме, положительное восприятие и оценка личности в группе .
Показатели эффективности деятельности имееют, в среднем, равные абсолютные показатели(30;27;32).На основании данных таблицы можно сделать предположение о связанности показателей эффективности и низких значений для военнослужащих с застревающей характерологической акцентуацией. Особо хотелось выделить низкие социальные показатели, которые предполагают повышенную конфликтность, низкую срабатываемость в группе и в коллективе, низкую групповую привязанность, низкую адаптивность к нормам группы обследуемых военнослужащих.
Рассмотрим еще одну группировку данных, иллюстрирующая зависимость низкой эффективности деятельности от определенных значимыми выше(Таблица 10).
На основании данной таблицы можно предположить о прямой связи наличия застревающей акцентуации и низкой эффективностью воинской деятельности, неполной семьи у личности, а также места жительства до призыва в ВС в городской местности, что в целом согласуется с результатами исследований военных психологов.1 Наиболее низкие показатели имеют место в личностном и социальном показателях. Не подтвердилась гипотеза о сильной связи застревающей акцентуации с уровнем образования военнослужащего. Высокие показатели зафиксированы как у имеющих среднее образование, так и неимеющих, по этому говорить о сколько - нибудь значимой связи одного из вариантов нет оснований.
военнослужащих с застревающей акцентуацией и низкой эффективностью
Следовательно, проявления заносчивости, самонадеянности не зависят от знаний, приобретенных до призыва в ВС и требуют в работе психолога в групповой работе создать условия для недопущения конфликтов между участниками на основе эрудиционного противоборства, исключения упражнений, требующих высокого уровня эрудиции, не использовать терминологии, которая может не восприниматься частью группы, создавая условия дискомфорта и неприятия групповой работы. Желательтно создать обстановку взаимной компенсации в групповой работе, когда происходит взаимное обогащение информацией об окружающей среде, вариантах поведения, а значит и формировать чувства сопереживания, сопринятия окружающих2 .
Краткие выводы по второй главе:
Таким образом, на основе обследования молодых воинов с использованием вышеперечисленных методик можно предположить следующее :
* происходит дальнейшее качественное изменение структуры призывного контингента, характеризующеся значительным снижением образовательного ценза, преобладанием жителей сельской местности, повышение количества призывников из неполных семей;
* значительная доля молодых военнослужащих имеет “заостренную” акцентуацию, преимущественно характерологическую, велико количество со смешанными акцентуациями;
* на основе анализа статистических данных можно утверждать о том, что наличие смешанного типа акцентуаций, как правило, является условием, способствующим снижению эффективности деятельности военнослужащего;
* подтверждается предположение о связи застревающей акцентуации и низкой эффективностью воинской деятельности с наличием неполной семьи изучаемых военнослужащих, проживанием их до службы в армии; связь с образовательным цензом не получила своего подтверждения в ходе экспериментальной проверки гипотезы;
* наиболее низкие показатели эффективности деятельности застревающие акцентуанты имеют по социальным и личностным показателям, несколько выше - по предметно - техническим, что позволяет дифференцировать систему индивидуальной и групповой работы с данной категорией военнослужащих;
* проведенный констатирующий эксперимент в целом подтвердил теоретические положения первой главы о значимости характера и его акцентуированности в структуре личности военнослужащих и возможности типологизации его проявлений, необходимости организации систематической и целенаправленной психологической помощи таким военнослужащим по устранению негативных факторов среды и повышении эффективности деятельности.
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Психологический анализ факторов и условий, влияющих на эффективность деятельности молодых военнослужащих с застревающей характерологической акцентуацией и возможности оказания им психологической помощи
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