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Psychological analysis of carrying a database by officers
Combat duty is an object of research in many humanitarian, military, and technical sciences. What and how to analyze, what principles to rely on in order to carry out a psychological analysis.
As long as there is a person, so much he is trying to unravel the secrets of his "soul" psyche.
However, this mystery to the end is unlikely to be revealed to the person himself (maybe this is his happiness).
Therefore, psychology lives in a world of hypotheses, sentences. For each of them, as a rule, a scientific school.
Each scientific school is based on its methodology, conceptual system, methods and technologies. One of the most important methodological problems is the “image of man”, on the basis of which the school builds its research.
Traditional for domestic psychology. is the image of “a man-agent." A man is born of life in human society, seeks to become a person and affirms individuality.
He is born an individual, becomes a personality, individuality is upheld. The main way of human existence of his “humanization” is activity ..
In the process of activity a person “enters” into the world, and “world enters” into a person.
In the process of activity, the human mind, psyche is formed, develops and manifests itself.
In activities to ensure the tasks of combat duty, the following are formed, developed and manifest themselves:
motives of a serviceman answering the questions “why,” “why,” combat duty is necessary;
goals that answer the question “what” must be done on combat duty, its final result;
methods that answer the question of “how” it is necessary to achieve the purpose of combat duty, what means to use.
The choice of methods is predetermined by the conditions of combat duty. The goal presented in certain conditions is a task.
In activity, a person is represented holistically, in the unity of all his properties. Understanding this warns against an erroneous idea that the psyche can be “decomposed” into elements, each can be examined, and then “folded”.
That is why Russian psychologists proposed to study the psyche “not by elements.”, But “by units.” If we study the properties of water (H2O) through studying the properties of hydrogen and oxygen separately, we will get a paradoxical fact.
Oxygen supports combustion, and hydrogen burns. But water (H2O) is just used to fight fire. Thus, in order to study the properties of water, it is necessary to study the properties of its “units.” - water molecules (H2O), and not the properties of its elements (H, O).
The unit of activity analysis is action. An action contains all the basic properties of an activity. Each action has a motive, goals, ways and means. Thus, to conduct a psychological analysis of duty means studying the motives, goals, and conditions of combat activity of military personnel.
The leading motives (meanings and personal meaning) of combat duty are:
motives of "responsible longevity" (responsibility and duty);
collectivist motives caused by relations of mutual dependence and responsibility between members of the crew of calculation, shift, crew, unit, unit;
motives due to personal domestic problems (promotion, family problems, domestic problems, etc.).
Studies show that the hierarchy of motives for combat alert officers is such that unconditional leadership takes the motives of "responsible longevity", then collectivist motives.
The motives for "career advancement" are particularly pronounced among young officers. These laws of the hierarchy of motives in each case may not appear.
At the same time, their hierarchy indicated as possible is also necessary for the successful solution of combat duty tasks. The main objectives of combat duty:
performance of a combat mission for emergency analysis, the time of receipt of which is not determined;
processing combat training, training tasks.
The conditions for carrying combat duty, the methods and means used:
fulfillment of a state combat mission in peacetime and war; the need to maintain constant readiness for uncompromising hostilities in any situation;
relative isolation conditions;
organization of duty;
comfort of the workplace, mode of work and rest, nutrition;
predominantly operator-like action; tough algorithm of actions, operations; fixed cyclical activity, etc.
The extreme nature of activities to accomplish combat duty tasks (goals in conditions) is influenced by the following psychological factors: responsibility, which requires mobilization of the reserve capabilities of the psyche; danger - a life-instinct for self-preservation;
surprise - forcing to act in unpredictable conditions;
lack of time - imposing an unusual work rhythm;
lack or excess of information creating difficulty in making a decision due to either a lack or excess of data;
novelty - which has become new tasks, the solution of which is absent in past experience;
the combination of several types of actions involving the achievement, simultaneously, of different goals, etc.
These mental factors and their combinations are the result of inconsistencies between:
various motives, etc. activity is motivated;
motives and goals;
between perspective and current goals;
between goals and methods of their implementation;
between the conditions of activity and armament by the methods of combat activity, etc.
Thus, the part psychologist needs:
1. Conduct a psychological analysis of the activities of a serviceman on combat duty: to study the hierarchy of motives, motives, incentives, motives of personal meaning; determine what immediate and promising goals are set for a soldier at the stage of being on duty; to reveal the influence of conditions on the choice of methods and means of combat, combat training activities
To identify the hierarchy of factors (responsibility, danger, novelty, etc.) that create a psychological burden at different stages of combat duty during the course of combat duty monitoring.
3. In search of the causes of the psychological stress that has arisen, pay attention to possible inconsistencies and conflicts in the structure of combat activity.
4. Then develop recommendations for working with this specialist both in the process of preparation and on combat duty.
The generalized human reaction to the emerging situations in the process of being on alert are stenic and asthenic mental states.
The main sthenic conditions: readiness, responsibility, confidence, determination, etc.
The main asthenic conditions: habits, doubts about the possibility of the onset of the need for military activity, frustration, fatigue, monotony, etc.
The "state of habit" is due to two main reasons. The state significance of the combat missions performed, objectively, increases the mobilization capabilities of the serviceman, contributes to the formation of motives for responsible duty, which often leads to the functioning of the psyche
at the limit of the possible. However, it cannot go on for so long. After a certain time, the protective mechanisms of the psyche turn on, its functional mood decreases (very often it happens imperceptibly for a person). And if during this period of thinking of a functional spirit the activity on combat duty is carried out intensely (no complaints), then very soon, a military man will develop a “habit »To fulfill the tasks of combat duty at a low (from the point of view of mental readiness for immediate active hostilities on an emergency signal) level of mental activity.
On the other hand, the stronger the significance of the event (the outbreak of hostilities), the more this event seems to man ... unlikely. The emotionality of the event right
in proportion to the degree of its uncertainty. And which also reduces the level of mental activity. Words about the need for high combat readiness become ... a necessary background for a peaceful life.
Another reason for the “habit” is the lack of elements of novelty, non-standard in the organization of training, intercession and combat duty. A “state of frustration” occurs in a soldier when a conflict arises
between "must and can." Very often a lot is said and done in order to form and maintain the motives of responsibility and duty, but along with this very little is done in order to build self-confidence in the soldier.
As a result, a doubt arises and intensifies, “But am I capable of fulfilling this important, responsible, state task?”
"The state of fatigue, fatigue" is the result of the depletion of the mental and physical resources of a person under the influence of prolonged overload and underload.
A "state of monotony" occurs when the amount of attention and mental stress decreases sharply. It is the result of "unsaturated interest", of monotonous activity (since a person, objectively, strives for a wealth of sensations, which is difficult in the context of habitual, monotonous activity) .
The cumulative result, the integral mental state of a serviceman on alert is a state of readiness for emergency action.
The state of mental readiness is a motivational-volitional state of the psyche,
ensuring the actualization of professional preparedness in the process of transition from waiting for an emergency signal, the time of receipt of which is not determined, to active hostilities.
What conclusions follows from this definition?
Readiness is a mental state, which means it may or may not be.
Human life is a change of state.
The structural components of any mental state are: motivational, cognitive, emotional and volitional.
In a state of mental readiness, the believer is a motivational-volitional component.
The state of readiness ensures the implementation of a professional level of training in new conditions with the least psychological losses. It somehow “throws” the achieved level of military skill from the state of expectation into combat activity. Depending on how ready the state is
formed, the "loss" of military skill depends, especially at the initial stage of hostilities, when the count goes for a split second.
Sometimes a state of readiness is compared with a “gateway” that “skips” the achieved level of military prowess. This “gateway” can “skip” it completely, or create obstacles to it, up to “prohibition of passage.” An example is the “step state” when a person is simply “numb” and incapable of performing appropriate actions.
The state of readiness, its content is largely individual. At the same time, there is something in common that predetermines it.
Since it provides a “transition”, it is obvious that this state should, in potential, contain within itself what will require military operations.
In other words, the state of readiness is “not waiting,” but “not yet fighting.” Thus, to determine the content of the state of readiness, it is necessary to conduct a meaningful analysis of the period of “hostilities”.
By comparing the psychological requirements for a person with a waiting period for emergency actions and a period of active hostilities, one can determine the content of the state of mental readiness.
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