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Socio-psychological characteristics of the subjects of relationships

Determining the socio-psychological characteristics of the officers, it should be noted first of all that officers form the main backbone of a military unit. They are the direct organizers of the combat training and educational processes. However, it should be borne in mind that in terms of their socio-psychological characteristics, the officers are also not homogeneous. In the interest of increasing the objectivity and practical significance of the given socio-psychological characteristics of the officers, it is advisable to conditionally divide this category into two large groups: officers of the first period of service and officers with significant career experience who are at the second, final stage of their career. The first group, as a rule, includes young officers and the majority of junior officers (naturally, those who are 35–40 years old with the rank of senior lieutenant or captain do not fall into this group).

In the second group, it is advisable to include those who finish the service, and most of the senior officers. Consider the general socio-psychological characteristics of each of the selected groups of officers in the form of a combination of positive and negative qualities, the knowledge of which will allow you to choose the most effective methods of interaction with them.

The most significant positive characteristics of the officers of the first group should be attributed to: formed worldview positions; social maturity; breadth of interests; propensity for the military profession; conscious choice of the type of Armed Forces, type of troops; good theoretical background; diligence, diligence, discipline; trust in the experience of senior officers; professional ambition, the need to improve in the chosen profession; desire for independence, initiative, desire to prove oneself, to move up the career ladder; increased need for communication; proximity to soldiers and other qualities.

The opposite of the listed are the following characteristics of this group of officers: lack of experience; fragility of beliefs; susceptibility to negative environmental influences; high vulnerability; maximalism in evaluations; emotionality; haste in decisions and actions; poor skills in working with people; commitment to severe pragmatism in the performance of their duties; quite often, especially recently, there is a desire to find application for their professional knowledge and skills outside naval (military) units; insufficient formation of skills in overcoming official and domestic difficulties; unclear presentation of the prospects of his career; dissatisfaction with life, financial situation, leisure activities, etc. As a result, a significant part of the young officers leave the army and navy in the first 5 years of military service.

Characterizing the officers of the second group, special attention should be paid to such positive qualities inherent in it as life and service experience; high professionalism; responsibility; exactingness to oneself and subordinates; developed sociability; good skills in working with people; ability to make informed decisions; professional ambition; adaptation to restrictions of personal freedom and strict regulation of official activities and personal life; focus on official affairs; discipline, etc.

As negative characteristics, it should be noted the tendency towards conservatism (pattern of activity) that had formed by that time; strong trust in his official and communicative experience; extremely rare rejection of the usual, including negative, stereotypes of behavior and performance (which, according to V.O. Klyuchevsky, may be characterized not so much by the firmness of beliefs, but by the inertia of thought). In most cases, they give preference to administrative, team methods of working with people, less often the potential of other methods is used; the prevalence of material interests in the motivation of service; manifestation of official snobbery, authoritarian style of behavior, patronizing tone in relationships; there is a certain decrease in performance due to the so-called “pre-retirement moods”; many have a feeling of social, moral and material insecurity, a certain social impairment compared with representatives of other sectors of society of an equal level of training and qualification; one feels and sometimes emphasizes the so-called official fatigue, etc.

The socio-psychological characteristic of warrant officers and ensigns has its own difficulties and contradictions. Often recruiting from among the sailors (soldiers) and foremen (sergeants) of the ship (unit), they can bear the imprint of the socio-psychological characteristics of this category for a long time. But in general, a higher educational level compared to it should be noted.

A positive factor is the fully conscious, deeply meaningful choice of the type of professional activity. As a rule, when signing a contract to serve as a warrant officer or ensign, a person has complete information about the conditions and features of the service on a particular ship, and they are happy with it. Motives may be proximity to the home, and the opportunity to get a special or higher education, opening up service prospects, housing, financial and other material benefits related to military service. The acquisition of social stability, sustainable earnings, and protection against unemployment play a significant role in this regard. All this activates the service activities of midshipmen (ensigns), fueling their desire for professional development.

Given the wide range of differences in work experience, education, professionalism, years of service midshipmen and ensigns,

the commander is given the opportunity to maneuver, which in turn can become an incentive for official activity of the category of military personnel under consideration.

However, it is important to see the negative characteristics of this category. The first time after graduating from the school of midshipmen (warrant officers), their professional and managerial insolvency, cases of familiarity with subordinates, and the inability to properly demand them can be revealed. Often in their activities there is a desire to avoid workloads and occupy a relatively independent position without subordinates, with minimal control by officers; lack of initiative; attempts to resolve personal issues at the expense of official time and official position. If the ensign's official activity is motivated mainly by material incentives, then, as a rule, it drops sharply when the material benefits expected from the service are achieved (obtaining housing, graduating from a secondary specialized or higher educational institution, mastering a profession that is beneficial for civil work, etc.).

In general, the socio-psychological characteristics of midshipmen (warrant officers) and contract servicemen have many common features. In the socio-psychological characteristics of contract servicemen, it is also advisable to proceed from consideration of a combination of positive and negative traits. The positive features of this category include the following: voluntary decision to serve in the navy or in the army; understanding and accepting the need to comply with the terms of the contract; material interest in professional development; attraction to military order and culture; the desire to perfectly master their specialty, to prove their professional suitability; adherence to the fleet or to the chosen type of the Armed Forces, family, troops, consciousness of the choice of duty station; as a rule, a more conscientious attitude to the performance of everyday duties, compared with conscript servicemen, etc.

However, as far as contract servicemen are concerned, it is still not possible to put a powerful filter on the path of the penetration of the so-called “social bottom” into the army.
In other words, the contract is not signed by the best citizens of our society. Attention should be paid to the friability of the motives for contract service. As sociological studies show

In recent years, material interests have prevailed in motivation and very insignificantly have motives of a broad social plan. In this regard, their predominant activity in official activities is aimed at exercising their rights and benefits, and not at fulfilling duties. As a rule, the level of general education and spiritual culture signing a service contract is low. Weak and professional training even for those who come to the unit after graduating from training centers. Contracting servicemen often show a lack of readiness for significant restrictions and strict regulation of military life.

In addition, the relatively short life span of this new category of military personnel in the army and navy is marked by the growth of gross violations of military discipline associated with drunkenness (and drunkenness), drug addiction, specific types of unregistered relations, conflicts with military servicemen, theft of wealth, weapons and other

In the socio-psychological characteristics of conscripts, the most important is to take into account the specific manifestations and contradictions inherent in adolescence at the stage of transition to maturity. Let us dwell on some of them.

By the age of 18-20, a person is undergoing rapid development of character, beliefs, personality orientation, worldview positions, stereotypes of relationships with people. Studies show that by the age of 18 the nervous system and sensory organs reach the level of development of an adult. This ensures the clarity and speed of interaction of all organs of the body. However, due to the intensity of physical development, as well as the lack of experience in self-management in a young person, the processes of excitation usually prevail over the processes of inhibition. In general, this age has a number of significant contradictions.

1. On the one hand, a broad outlook, curiosity, energy, a sense of newness, a desire to prove oneself, and on the other hand, it is adjacent to pessimism, apathy, legal nihilism, bravado, inconsistency, and dispersal of interests.

2. The desire for independence, independence of opinions and actions and, at the same time, commitment to group influence, support by authorities of their views. This category of military personnel shows a strong dependence on the opinion of the company of peers, the closest circle, who, in this case, play the role of a reference group.

3. The need for self-affirmation, at the same time, the modesty of the arsenal of forms, methods and means of self-expression of a person, and insufficient life experience. Often this forces them to resort to morally flawed, and sometimes legally illegal, practices.

4. In evaluations, statements and relationships, the desire for certainty, clarity, and unambiguity is manifested. These qualities are explained by youthful maximalism, the desire by any means to defend one's opinion (quite often erroneous or controversial). However, this is adjacent to inconstancy, fragility of beliefs, scarcity of argumentation, insufficient persistence and inconsistency in achieving the goal.

5. Acute susceptibility, strong sensitivity, increased emotionality, and this entails increased conflict, excitability, haste in decision-making and in actions.

6. By the age of 18, the young man has already formed many character traits, developed certain dynamic stereotypes of behavior and relationships with others. The conditions of military service require their revision, and this is a rather complicated and painful process of psychological restructuring and breaking up the character.

7. 18-20 years is a period of rapid formation of human needs, in particular, it coincides with the approaching climax of sexual activity in men. The inability in the army to satisfy many emerging sexual needs leads to frustration, generates psychological tension and can push military personnel to search for immoral, and in some cases illegal means to satisfy them.

8. Much is perceived in a romantic light. Young men are attracted by the romance of military service. However, when confronted with the prose and routine of naval and army everyday life, a young man may experience a protest reaction, the forms of manifestation of which are diverse: from withdrawing “into oneself” to demonstrative aggressive behavior or violent expression of other negative emotions.

In addition, drug addiction, drunkenness, sexual licentiousness, cynicism, a decline in the values ​​of human life, disbelief in ideals, as well as social illnesses and troubles, especially aggravated in post-perestroika times, are now widespread among young people.

Speaking about women military personnel, first of all, high performance of this category, discipline, desire for order and accuracy in the workplace should be highlighted. Their presence culturally ennobles the relationship in the team, to a certain extent stimulates the social and official activity of men. It is noticed: where there are more women serving in the unit, there are fewer cases of drunkenness, hazing, unauthorized absence, rudeness in interpersonal relationships.

At the same time, it should be noted that women cannot be fully entrusted with the performance of official duties (for example, ship exits, live firing, combat exercises, exercises offshore, etc.), as the specifics of physical development and opportunities of the female body, as well as their regular physiological cycles. In addition, women’s family problems, as a rule, are reflected in the service more than in male soldiers. It should also take into account the increased emotionality of women, which in purely female military groups often causes conflicts and squabbles.

Taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of various categories of military personnel allows us to more meaningfully, taking into account practical expediency, analyze the interconnection of those phenomena that characterize the psychological structure of the military collective and the features of the relationship in them.
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Socio-psychological characteristics of the subjects of relationships

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