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The socio-psychological essence of hazing
In the literature you can find various terms denoting this violation of the relationship of military personnel: atrocities, mockery and bullying, barracks hooliganism, anti-statutory and others. In psychology, the negative relations of military personnel were called “wrong”, and subsequently “non-regular” relations. At a certain stage of understanding the problem, this term satisfied the command staff and law enforcement agencies and came into use in military jurisprudence and official communication. Along with official terminology, there is a kind of jargon in daily communication of conscripts, depending on the nature of military activity and the duration of their service, the military personnel are assigned chki like: "spirit",
"Crucian carp", "poltorashnik", "crab", "total", "grandfather", "year old", etc. The keywords in jargon are “grandfather”, “year”, i.e. military personnel of the last period of service, which served as the main reason for distinguishing the concepts of "hazing" and "Godkovschina".
Gradually, this name of negative relations migrated to the pages of periodicals and began to be used everywhere. The presence of various terms to refer to the same phenomenon of hazing creates, on the one hand, a known contradiction in the implementation of counteraction through disciplinary practice, and on the other hand, certain difficulties in studying the psychological factors, trends and dependencies that accompany them. Investigations of the state of affairs in units and on ships show that non-statutory relationships should be understood as a polydeterministic phenomenon when they occur, socio-historical, socio-psychological and individually-personal factors interact. Socio - historical factors of negative relationships can be represented as follows: the consequences of the personality cult and stagnation; complex socio-economic situation in society; moral and dysfunctional atmosphere in families; shortcomings and errors in the educational activities of the institutions of socialization; the gap between the level of education and the level of education, erosion of morals, alcoholism and drug addiction among a separate part of the youth; the imperfection of the system of ensuring social justice and, as a result, the tension in the relations between various categories of military personnel. Social factors, combined with contradictions in the field of military activity, the field of command and control of military units, the process of manning units and units, and finally, educational work, have made a significant deformation in the system of combat and everyday life of the troops. First of all, the deformations touched the weakest link in the intra-collective phenomena - the relationship of military servicemen. In the content and orientation of the relations of the military men developed, the processes of group and personal dissatisfaction, distorting highly moral behavior, gained strength. Therefore, the emergence of non-statutory relationships can be considered as a by-product of the aggravation of social contradictions in society and negative factors of the vital activity of military collectives. At the same time, social, political and economic factors and contradictions alone cannot cause one form or another of behavior and personal relationships. these contradictions, with all their exacerbations, manifest themselves only by refracting through a specific activity and consciousness of people, i.e. individual-personal sphere of behavior.
The individual-personal sphere of behavior and interaction of a warrior involves the allocation of at least four basic elements: cognitive (knowledge of the moral and legal principles of norms and rules of conduct and joint dormitory; assimilation and adoption of functional role tasks and goals of military activity; knowledge of the individual psychological characteristics of colleagues and your own); emotionally evaluative (emotional satisfaction with character
interpersonal relationships in a group; favorable conditions for the establishment and maintenance of friendship and partnership; empathy and participation in the process of joint activities); motivational (needs, aspirations, ideals of disciplined behavior; the nature of the combination in the relationship of a warrior’s personality with other servicemen of socially valuable and personally significant impulses; the strength and stability of stimulus factors of moral conduct); executive (skills, abilities and experience of joint activities and communication; ability and ability to adequately shoulder responsibility in case of success or failure to complete the task; positive techniques and methods of self-expression and self-affirmation in the group and others). These individual-personality components, combined with the characterological and temperamental characteristics of the warrior, form the contours of the position of the serviceman in relation to a comrade in service or a group of soldiers. The position of a warrior is a complex of feelings, assessments and judgments, due to the actions and qualities of comrades in joint activities. In a situation of improper relationships, the position of a soldier is realized in the psychological readiness of a soldier to build his relationships and behavior with others in a certain way. The typology of such readiness is usually the following: the so-called “active opportunists,” that is, those who are inclined to adapt to the dictates of senior military personnel. These soldiers consciously go to meet the various needs and requirements of senior military personnel (they buy food, wash clothes on their own initiative and etc.), as well as informing them about the behavior of young soldiers, related to “passive opportunists,” ie selfishly oriented military personnel who are indifferent to issues of strengthening the military disciplines shun public work, avoid conflicts, silently bear insults, do not show activity in educational and everyday activities;
military personnel of a conflict type, who have developed unfavorable relations with their comrades from the first months of service, primarily with colleagues from earlier drafts. Among them may be military personnel: of a positive orientation -
the position is distinguished by activity and deliberate purposefulness in counteracting hazing relationships; negative orientation - behavior is characterized by extreme individualism, the desire to solve all problems independently, often on the basis of the immoral, asocial experience of pre-conscription activities;
military personnel whose behavior is significantly affected by a painful, obsessive homesickness. These are, as a rule, vulnerable, psychologically unbalanced natures, often self-contained and extremely emotional.
Therefore, due to the fixation of one or another typology of behavior in a situation of hazing, a conscious informal separation of young recruits into “close” and “outcasts” is possible, and the principle of “divide and conquer” begins in relationships: deliberate restriction of communications of young replenishment into personal and official time; a reduction in the flow of social and cultural information that is meaningful to them, and the imposition of the ideology of "non-instability" in communication. At the same time, warriors who finish their service perform, as a rule, “control functions” in maintaining negative traditions, while previously subjected to hazing, they act as carriers of stereotypes of behavior. Most often among this category there are active generators of various ways of forcing and suppressing young warriors. Social and individual-personality factors that determine the formation and development of hazing relationships are dialectically interconnected with the socio-psychological phenomena of the functioning of military units. Such phenomena include: a stable intra-group differentiation of roles and positions in combination with negative leadership, a rigid hierarchy of microsocial associations, their rights and duties; the presence of flexible forms of coercion and sanctions against those servicemen who shy away from fulfilling the requirements of “non-instability”; the existence of an unofficial
control and measures to influence the behavior and actions of young warriors; the transfer of distorted habits, traditions, rituals from one appeal to another, from senior to younger, accompanied by the concealment and masking of hazing in a mutual responsibility.
For practitioners, the idea of socio-psychological indicators of hazing is important. These indicators include: the constant reproduction of microsocial associations of military personnel of a negative orientation in the relations of soldiers of various calls and periods of service, their regional and national identity; the unspoken existence of prescriptions, norms and rules of action and behavior of servicemen of various periods of service in everyday life; the gradual enforcing of rules and norms for the reproduction of distorted traditions and rituals among the military personnel of later periods of conscription; systematic cultivation of the initial forms of non-statutory relationships and their development from precriminal and criminal offenses; the weakening of the process of collectivist self-determination of the individual to the goals and objectives of joint activity, the sphere of its moral values and the decrease in the social activity of military personnel; the desire to camouflage non-statutory relationships through emphasizing the command on the shortcomings and omissions of the young replenishment, or by sticking out the organizational and technological shortcomings in official activities;
the existence in the division of polarized public opinion on the process of eradicating hazing and its prospects; psychological pressure in everyday communication, the creation of privileges in everyday life and the activities of personnel, the allocation of role-playing leader, controller and executor, maintaining their activity in the generation of hazing.
The functioning of these socio-psychological phenomena in combination with individual and personal factors leads to the fact that the relations of military personnel in the unit do not just violate a specific legal or moral norm of behavior, but create the subsystem of relations themselves. Such a pseudo-system of self-organizing non-formal relationships acts in such a way that it redistributes the subjective significance of certain types of military activity, reduces the degree of mediation of interpersonal relations by the content of joint socially valuable activity. Thus, the personal meaning and the process of stimulating highly moral relations of soldiers are weakened. Ultimately, the entire system of relations of responsible dependence and mutual insistence of military personnel is destabilized, and non-statutory relationships are manifested in a wide variety of forms. Therefore, hazing is a subsystem socio-psychological phenomenon, the essence of which is the formation, development and consolidation of the negative business, moral and emotional relations of soldiers of various appeals that provide the possibility of self-realization and self-expression, thereby psychologically compensate for the state of dissatisfaction with their group and personal position . By the nature of the manifestation, non-statutory relationships should be divided into initial, fixed and stable. Initial non-statutory relationships are those relationships which, in content, are in the nature of the artificial moral and psychological superiority of some military personnel over others, as a rule, of a later period of conscription. This type of relationship is hidden, disguised and often manifests itself in the field of communication and through the voluntary concessions of individual military personnel. Fixed non-statutory relationships are derived from the initial ones and are arbitrary regulatory requirements for the actions and behavior of colleagues. Their distinctive feature is the presence of a situation of threat of violence, encroachment or insult in case of failure to comply with the requirements, functioning in a group of privileges and privileges of "old-timers". Sustainable hazing is characterized by the dominance of antisocial needs in some groups of military personnel and the presence of facts
violence and physical abuse of military personnel. Among the variables affecting collective military activity, a significant role belongs to the nature of emotional-personal relations. In military units, this variable connection sometimes acquires a self-sufficient character. Such dependence can both strengthen and destabilize relationships of responsible dependence, being a source of various deviations of relationships.
The destabilizing factors of the emotional-personal relations of military personnel in everyday activities include: the dynamics of the development of group value orientations of military personnel of various service experience; the uniqueness of the distribution of specialists in combat posts and shifts in the process of joint activity of soldiers; features of intra-draft and inter-draft interaction. Thus, a soldier's belonging to a particular period of service correlates with a change in the general style of behavior and relations, as well as value orientations for the remaining period of service in accordance with their new status and role in the unit. The “borderline” zone of such changes in significant value orientations is the middle of the service. Younger soldiers are more prone to various destabilizing factors than other military personnel. It has also been noted that, as functional role roles are stabilized, service experience is enriched, and professional mastery grows, the emotional nature of relationships within the call is more and more supplemented by meaningful and active assessments of each other's capabilities. With the approaching time of discharge to the reserve, the reverse process is observed. As a result, the relationships of individual soldiers of the same draft term in their meaningful and dynamic development acquire a closed, isolated character, which contributes to the formation of negative microsocial associations (microgroups). The closed, isolated character of negative appeal internal-invocative emotional-personal relations determines the stereotypicity in the perception of each other by warriors, which is manifested in strict role-playing instructions and jargon
"Non-instability". At the same time, contacts, being fixed, form a stable system of traditional assessment by each other's military personnel, i.e. acquire an independent function, determining the nature of interpersonal relations in general.
Thus, the effect of destabilizing factors in a situation of hazing is characterized by: the constant reproduction of the social orientation on the temporary nature of the interaction of the rank and file and, as a result, the strengthening of psychological barriers for the manifestation of participation (identification) of soldiers of various durations of service; the uncertainty of the psychological situation on the establishment, strengthening and use of emotional and personal relationships (partnership, friendship, etc.) in the initial period of service; manifestation of conformal reactions to the negative behavior of individual members of the collective, adaptability among young warriors, objectively leading to the emergence of group privileges and the allocation of role-playing leader, controller and performer. Therefore, the prevention of hazing in divisions should be built taking into account the subjective significance and degree of mediation of interpersonal relationships by the content of joint military activity, individual and personality characteristics of the behavior of subordinates, the stability of the functioning of the subsystem of hazing, and in combination with the regulation of emotional and personal relationships directly in contact groups.
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The socio-psychological essence of hazing
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