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Special professionally-oriented learning environment as the basis of information technology support of the educational process
In modern Russian pedagogy, the problem of creating a learning environment at a university is not new. The works of B. N. Bogatyr, V. V. Gusev, V. V. Karpov, M. V. Klarin, N. F. Maslova, M. S. Chvanova and other scientists are devoted to its solution. So, for example, V.V. Gusev and N.F. Maslova , within the framework of this approach, are considering the possibility of creating an educational environment in a military university based on the integration of socially-developing and professionally oriented teaching technologies that ensure the implementation of cadets and students cognitive activity in various types of educational activities. In this case, we are talking about using the created environment in the interests of information and targeted management of the process of professional formation of the personality of a future military specialist. A somewhat different approach is proposed by M. S. Chvanova . It introduces the concept of “professionally-oriented information-educational environment”, which means a combination of, firstly, the means and technologies of collecting, accumulating, transmitting, processing and distributing educational and professionally-oriented information, and secondly, conditions conducive to the emergence and the development of information interaction between the teacher, students and the means of information and communication technologies. This approach is more consistent with the goals of informatization of the educational process in a military university, but it has one significant drawback: information tools and information and communication technologies are not considered by the author in a single pedagogical interaction determined by didactic goals. Its definition is dominated by a “technocratic” view of the problem, which refers to the use of a combination of software, hardware and software and technical means in the educational process, and not about training technologies based on the integrated use of information tools, the choice and development of which are completely determined by the goals training a future military specialist.
In contrast to this approach, in accordance with the content set out in the previous paragraph, it is advisable to talk about creating a special professionally-oriented learning environment at a university that integrates into a combination of two inextricably linked information and technological components of educational process informatization in the interest of improving its information and technological providing. Speaking about the special environment, it is necessary to bear in mind the importance of filling it with special subject-specific professionally-oriented content that meets the requirements for training specific specialists at the military university for power ministries and departments.
The principles in accordance with which this environment is created - the definition of the student as an active subject of cognition; his orientation to self-education, self-development; reliance on the subjective experience of a cadet (listener), taking into account his individual mental and psychophysiological characteristics, communicative abilities; training in the context of future military professional activities.
An effective solution to the problems of improving the educational process in a military university related to the choice of content, means and technologies of training involves the presentation of objects, subjects and processes of preparation and formation of future FAPSI specialists in the form of certain systems (educational, pedagogical, personality formation, etc.) , the study of which in order to make decisions about their optimization, suitability, and so on is inextricably linked with the creation of their models (mathematical, semantic, verbal, symbolic, subject). In this case, a model should be understood as an object that in some respects resembles the prototype and serves as a means of describing, explaining, or predicting the behavior of the prototype. Moreover, each studied system can be represented by a certain number of models (subsystems), the form of which depends on the required depth of knowledge, level of abstraction, and the form of its material presentation.
Hence the conclusion: to justify the essence of the special professionally-oriented learning environment in a military university, it is advisable to use the method of pedagogical modeling, with which you can consider each of its components in their unity and interaction.
Despite the fact that the models formalizing the learning process do not fully reflect the content of real objects, there is no other way out than presenting objects in a form that allows us to consider their most important features and characteristics. Thus, models are ideal objects, analogues of real-life phenomena. They fix only the skeleton of phenomena and processes, freeing them from excessive detailing, accidents and secondary issues, make it possible to make any complex object accessible for careful study. Together, their creation helps a military teacher to fully take into account the sources and methods of setting didactic goals, the position and relationship of the parties in the process of achieving them, the result obtained and its compliance with qualification requirements and the State Educational Standards of Higher Education.
In the context of the informatization of higher military education, we are currently talking not only about the need to rethink many positions in the organization of the didactic process for the purposes, content, methods, means and forms of training, but also about rethinking the role and place in it of its main subjects - teachers and students . The pedagogical practice and work experience of the leading teachers of higher military educational institutions of Russia convincingly indicate that the ability to improve the quality of professional training of graduates of a military university largely depends on the professional competence of teachers and the active involvement of cadets and students in the learning process. This actualizes the need to give a fresh answer to the key questions facing the modern didactics of higher military schools today: whom to teach? what to teach? how to teach who to teach?
From the standpoint of system-activity and personality-oriented approaches, as well as the main provisions of the theory of management of pedagogical systems, it is advisable to present a special professionally-oriented learning environment in the form of its integral model, which includes five independent and at the same time interconnected and interdependent models - model a specialist, a model of the discipline, a model for managing the learning process, a student model and a model for the teacher (teacher) (Fig. 5.2).
We will reveal the content of each model.
The specialist model (who should I cook?) Reflects the requirements for fundamental, theoretical, special and applied training, and significant professional qualities of a graduate of a military university.
The model of a discipline (what to teach?) Includes educational goals, features of a professionally oriented system of knowledge, skills, abilities, degree and depth of study of a subject area, information capacity and didactic requirements: scientific content, systematicity, sequence of training, visualization, etc. It can be implemented as part of the didactic complex of information support for the educational process described in the previous paragraph.
An integrated model of a professionally-oriented learning environment
The learning process management model (how to learn?) Takes into account the specifics of the military teacher implementing the didactic capabilities of the training technology he developed:
- features of the teaching method and pedagogical theory on which this method is based;
- correspondence of the method of supplying educational material to the required discrete level of training;
- a set of strategic opportunities for teaching technology: changing the pace of study and the complexity of the proposed educational material, taking into account the individual characteristics of cadets and students;
- the source and type of control effect of this learning technology both on the entire educational process, and on each cadet (student), etc.
The named model can be implemented as a technological component of the information technology support of the educational process in the form of an appropriate training technology. The result of its design and construction by a military teacher is a technological map of the study of academic discipline.
The student’s model (whom to teach?) Is a certain reduction in the personality of the cadet (student), which allows the military teacher to analyze and take into account the psychophysiological and socio-psychological qualities of the student, his level of preparedness for working with DC and other information tools, the history of training , the level of basic and current knowledge, skills and abilities that characterize his educational and cognitive activity, the dynamics of the formation of significant professions nyh qualities.
The training model (who should be taught?) Takes into account the personal characteristics of the military teacher himself: professional pedagogical qualities, depth of knowledge of the subject area of the taught discipline, knowledge of modern teaching methods and technologies, information culture, etc.
Particular attention in the integral model deserves the specialist’s model, which plays the role of a connecting element that unites all its other components around itself. In this case, we are talking about a model of the future specialist - a university graduate. In order to be able to fully take into account the features and specifics of future military professional activities in the process, it is advisable to develop such a model.
The model of activity in pedagogy is understood as a systematic description of the subject of activity and related objects and the environments in which it is carried out. It is important to note that the activity model, being a kind of standard for the formation of significant professional qualities of a specialist, allows decomposing the general goals and contents of education into didactic goals and content implemented in the curricula of the corresponding higher military educational institutions. In this case, based on the requirements of the system-activity approach, training in any discipline taught at a military university should be carried out in strict accordance with the ultimate goals of training a specialist in a particular profile. Consequently, the specialist’s model acts as a kind of basis for the design and construction by the teacher of a military university of the appropriate training technology, and therefore, in general, of the information technology support of the educational process.
An information search in scientific and pedagogical sources showed that when developing a model of a specialist’s activity, as a rule, most researchers use such methods as analysis of the actual practice of using specialists of a particular profile; analysis of forecast data on the development of the field of activity for which a specialist is being trained; expert survey; the method of constructing a specialist model “in the opposite direction,” etc. Most of the methods used are based on extrapolating the activities of the most qualified personnel working in the professional field in which university graduates are to act.
A comparative analysis of existing methods and techniques for modeling professional activity made it possible to single out among them the one that most closely meets the goals and objectives of creating a special professionally-oriented environment in a military university. It became the methodology of normative-functional modeling of the professional activity of the FAPSI specialist, proposed by V.V. Gusev. The term “normative-functional modeling” provides for two approaches implemented within the framework of the methodology. Regulatory indicates the priority importance of the requirements of regulatory documents of the state and the relevant department, which determine the level and quality of professional training of a specialist, and functional - involves a deep analysis of professional tasks that he has to solve in the implementation of his functional responsibilities .
Normative and functional model of the graduate of the FAPSI Academy
The normative-functional model of a specialist’s professional activity (hereinafter referred to as the NFMS) is a matrix, the vertical lines of which indicate the specialist’s significant professional qualities (leading factors of professional activity), their presence is determined by the requirements of the State Higher Military Education and the qualification requirements for graduates of a specific higher educational institution, and horizontally in percentage terms, the required level of their formation among graduates of a military university who are successfully performing a professional the chores. Figure 5.3 shows the NFMS as a sample, the preparation of which is carried out at the FAPSI Academy under the President of the Russian Federation [28. - S. 83].
The mentioned methodology is universal in nature, which makes it possible to simulate in this way the professional activity of not only specialists from security agencies, but also specialists from other ministries and departments.
University training model
This conclusion is due to the following premises. First, the presence of the NFMS makes it possible on a scientific basis to correct and clarify in general not only the goals and content of professional education of a specialist in a military university, but also didactic goals, the content of training in specific blocks of academic disciplines in accordance with the requirements of future professional activities. Secondly, the university teacher on the basis of this model can reliably and accurately make the choice and justification of the methods, organizational forms and information tools that are most conducive to the high-quality development of the required significant professional qualities among cadets and students and thus form the subject matter of the subject matter special professionally-oriented learning environment. Thirdly, the availability of technology for monitoring the professional development of a specialist in a military university helps the teacher constantly compare the compliance of achieved didactic goals with the level of professionalization of students that meets the requirements of their future practical activities.
Based on the described aspects of modeling the activities of the FAPSI specialist, we can conclude that it is advisable to present the model of his professional training in the system of higher education in the form of a closed regulated and controlled process (Fig. 5.4).
As can be seen from the figure, in this case, the model of training a military specialist at a university organically includes the remaining four models: a model of academic discipline, a model for managing the learning process, a student model, and a training model (teacher).
Therefore, when creating a special professionally-oriented learning environment in a military university for studying a specific academic discipline, a teacher needs to develop all the mentioned models in accordance with the requirements of the normative-functional model of a specialist trained in this military university. Their optimization within the framework of the integral model will contribute to a more complete fulfillment of the requirements of the social order in the preparation of military professionals with a fairly strong base of specialized knowledge and practical skills in all areas of their future activities. This helps to shift the emphasis from the ability to almost literally reproduce educational information to an understanding of key facts, concepts, laws of theories of science, the ability to independently obtain and apply acquired knowledge, think logically, prove, solve new non-standard problems in any conditions of the current situation.
Questions and Tasks
1. Expand the essence of the concept of "informatization of military education." Justify its goals and priorities.
2. What types of support for the educational process at a military university do you know? Expand their essence and content.
3. Justify the purpose, content and structure of information technology support of the educational process.
4. Determine what fundamental features distinguish the didactic complex of information support of academic discipline from program-methodical complexes.
5. Justify the purpose of training technology in the structure of information technology support of the educational process. What is the technological map of the educational process and what parameters are determined in it?
6. Что следует понимать под специальной профессионально-ориентированной обучающей средой? Обоснуйте содержание моделей, которыми она может быть представлена.
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