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Means of psychological study of military personnel and military personnel

To accomplish the task of psychological study of personnel, a psychologist must possess a variety of methods of psychodiagnostics, a reasonable combination and application of which ensures the obtaining of objective information about military personnel. The main methods used by the psychologist are: analysis of documents (biographical method), survey (conversation, questionnaire), observation and testing.

Work with documents is an important, responsible and rather labor-intensive part of the psychologist’s activity, during which a preliminary idea of ​​a military man is developed. Documents include autobiographies, statements, questionnaires, specifications, professional psychological selection cards and service records, various certificates, reviews of military personnel, diaries, letters, photographs. Their study and analysis allows you to:

- to identify the social prerequisites for the predominant formation and consolidation of a soldier of one or another individual psychological qualities that contribute to or inhibit normal adaptation to military service, subsequent professional development;

- to highlight in the training and production activities of young men before being drafted into the army, specific manifestations testifying to the degree of maturity, activity of various mental processes, the stability of certain interests, value orientations, and character traits.

The subject of study are:

- social origin, belonging to a certain ethnic group, territorial community (village, small, large or medium city), professional category;

- Features of the immediate social environment - in the family, school, production team, among peers and friends;

- the content of the most preferred, interesting military man and information available to him;

- The main events of his biography.

Important information about cognitive abilities, level of psychological stability, military professional orientation and individual professionally important qualities of a military man can be obtained from a professional psychological selection card for a conscript, which contains the results of a socio-psychological study, psychological and psycho-physiological examination during registration and recruitment.

A survey is a method of collecting primary information by addressing questions to respondents (respondents). The source of information in the survey is the written or oral judgment of the respondent. Using the survey, you can get information about facts and events, information about the opinions, assessments and preferences of the respondents, their needs, interests, value orientations, life plans, etc. Moreover, this information can be obtained quite quickly and from a large number of people.

There are several survey options: oral and written surveys, free and standardized, expert, selective and continuous, etc. One of the most common forms of polling is a questionnaire. A questionnaire is a structurally organized set of questions, each of which is logically related to the central task of the study. Several types of profiles are known:

• questionnaires based on self-esteem by those who are interviewed about their properties and qualities;

• questionnaires, questions of which are aimed at the assessment by respondents of their actions in specific life situations;

• questionnaires, in which it is proposed to evaluate, express their attitude to other people or any events.

The data obtained during the survey can be statistically processed.

Individual conversation is a method of obtaining information about the individual psychological qualities of a soldier on the basis of direct verbal contact with him. It is a more “psychological” form of survey. Depending on the purpose of using this method, the conversation may be familiarization, diagnostic, experimental, preventive, etc.

With a skillful conversation, the psychologist can evaluate not only the formal (biographical) data of the serviceman, but also his needs, motives, interests, character traits, cognitive processes, identify deeply personal experiences of the warrior, which to some extent impede the performance of military service, his opinion about the situation in the military team, about colleagues, commanders, etc. The main diagnostic blocks of the necessary information about the serviceman can and should be the following information:

- biographical data;

- composition, living conditions of family members;

- orientation in events taking place in the country and abroad;

- time, place and nature of study or work in specialties related to a specific military post, organizational skills;

- hobbies in the present and in the past, special habits, relationships with peers;

- violations of behavior in the past (absenteeism, petty hooliganism, booze, escape from home, drives to the police, etc.);

- previous illnesses and injuries, the presence of complaints of health, sleep disturbance, appetite, etc .;

- the most unpleasant events in a past life and the reaction to them (thoughts of suicide), the prevailing mood in connection with separation from the family, the attitude to the difficulties of army life;

- attitude to military service, the validity of the desire to master a specific military specialty;

- the success of mastering the combined arms training program;

- participation in the public life of the unit;

- Relations with colleagues, attitude to the team, etc.

Complementary to the substantive components and very important features that characterize a soldier’s personality are his posture, appearance during a conversation, speech, self-assessment, mood, good manners, tact, frankness, quick wit, confidence, emotion, aggressiveness, sensitivity, etc.

The results of the conversation will help to make a psychological "diagnosis", on the basis of which individual work with the military is based and recommendations are made to commanders and commanders. A generalization of the content of individual conversations conducted according to a single concept allows us to obtain surname lists of the composition of microgroups, information about their leaders, data on their orientation, influence, and relationships.

Any individual conversation should not be reduced to meaningless conversation. It is a focused form of study of military personnel and requires compliance with certain conditions. They are:

- a clear definition of the main goal, the sequence of questions;

- ease, confidence, simplicity and clarity of issues;

- exclusion of any notes during the conversation;

- positive (optimistic), constructive completion of the conversation.

In everyday activities, it is not always possible to carefully compare the data obtained during numerous individual conversations. Therefore, psychologists often use the method of sociometry to obtain information of interest on relationships in the team. As a method of psychological study, sociometry is a combination of methodological techniques for quantifying and graphically presenting interpersonal relationships such as “sympathy-antipathy” in groups and collectives. The advantage of this method is the opportunity for a relatively short time to cover the study of all members of the group and to obtain voluminous and versatile information.

The method of sociometry allows you to:

- to identify the structure of interpersonal relations by determining mutual feelings, likes, dislikes, indifference among the military personnel - members of this group;

- determine the level of authority of the leader, as well as the place (status) of each member of the group in the structure of interpersonal relations;

- determine the presence and composition of microgroups, the relationship between them;

- give an assessment of group cohesion.

The essence of the method of sociometry is the choice by each member of the group from its composition of a partner for joint actions and communication in various alleged situations. To this end, using a sociometric card, which lists all the members of the group alphabetically, a survey of military personnel is conducted. For assessment, a specific situation is proposed, which allows revealing the individual attitude of a soldier to other members of the collective according to a certain criterion (business, moral, communicative, emotional, role). Questions of positive and negative orientation may sound something like this:

- Which member of the group would you like to carry out critical combat missions with? Who could lead the group to carry out the responsible task assigned by the commander? (business criterion).

- With whom would you like to relax together (go to dismissal, to a party, etc.)? (emotional criterion).

- Who would ask for advice? Which military personnel would you disagree with? (moral criterion).

- With whom would you like to talk, chat in your free time from the service? (communicative criterion).

All the results of individual elections are entered in the sociomatrix - a generalized summary table, in which the positive and negative choices of other members of the collective are put down opposite the last name of each military man.
Based on the analysis of unilateral and mutual elections, the main sociometric indicators are determined: sociometric status, mutual preferences, microgroups and their composition, emotional expansiveness, team cohesion coefficient, degree of compatibility of team members, level of conflict, including people who are psychologically stressed (conflict) condition.

Fig. 8.

Sociogram Option

The sociometric status of a serviceman is characterized by the sum of the elections received by this member of the group from other military personnel. Taking into account positive and negative elections and their total amount, the positive, negative and general (popularity) sociometric status of a soldier are distinguished.

The team cohesion index is determined by a special formula, taking into account the amount of mutual positive choices in the group. Similarly, taking into account the sum of negative elections, the group conflict index is determined.

A visual representation of this information is displayed using a sociogram (see Fig. 8).

Having a reliable picture of the unofficial structure of the military collective, the officer gets the opportunity to consider the real reasons for each individual case of violation of military discipline, to see the origins of its origin in one or another relationship of soldiers in the collective, to take measures to eliminate its negative consequences, the possibility of repetition or aggravation.

The observation method is one of the most objective and reliable methods of psychology. It is a purposeful and systematic study of actions, deeds, behavior in general, attitudes towards service and various phenomena of the surrounding reality in order to detect, register and analyze those facts that can characterize the orientation, nature, abilities and other personal qualities of military personnel, social and psychological features of the military team. Often, in order to increase the effectiveness of observation, situations are created in which a soldier could, to the maximum extent and in a short time, show those qualities that he needs to evaluate.

During individual observation, the subject of study is the practical actions (actions) of an individual. At the same time, the attitude to military service, the formation of moral, individual psychological and other qualities of a soldier, which are important for the successful completion of military service, are revealed.

The subject of group observation can be interpersonal contacts of members of a military collective, unit, combat crew: their number, duration, nature, activity, adaptation, initiative, dominance and other indicators of intra-group interaction. In addition, observation helps to solve a number of issues of studying the individual characteristics of military personnel: personality orientation, organizational, pedagogical, communicative, emotional, strong-willed and other qualities.

Objective observation is not aimed at external actions per se, but at their psychological content. Here, the external side of activity and behavior is only the source material of observation, which should receive its psychological interpretation and be comprehended within the framework of a certain theory. To register observation units, the corresponding methodological documents are used: cards, protocols, observation diaries. All observation data should be recorded, systematized, processed taking into account information obtained using other methods.

Table 2.

Systematization of Observation Data

A variety of categories of people who have direct contact are involved in the study of a soldier by observation method. So, during a medical examination, when washing in a bathhouse, it is necessary to pay attention to signs indicating the likelihood of deviant behavior of a serviceman. For example, tattoos on the body can reflect the symbolism of an initiation to the criminal environment, to a “free life”, a primitive desire for self-assertion, disobedience, or infantile love. Traces of cuts (more often on the left forearm) may be traces of suicidal attempts, traces of “discharge” of internal tension (“to calm down when one sees one’s own blood”) or traces of a “rite of fraternization” in a semi-criminal teenage environment.

Traces of injections on the forearms, between the fingers, in the armpits, on the penis, hips, especially along the veins, often indicate the use of intravenous infusions of drugs. A sign of drug abuse can also be pallor or yellowness of the skin, facial flushing, characteristic scarlet lips on a pale face (“clown mask”), wide or narrow pupils, trembling hands, sweating, drooling, brown plaque on the tongue, unsteady gait. Traces of damage (bruising, abrasions) should draw attention to the facts of violation of the rules of the statutory relationship between the military personnel in the unit.

If military personnel are suspected of using alcohol or drugs in the unit, such persons are sent to the medical center of the unit in order to confirm the presence of alcohol and drugs in the biological fluids of the military personnel.

A test (from the English test - task, test) is a method of personality research, based on its assessment according to the results of a standardized task, test, test with a predetermined reliability and validity. The result of the test is evaluated in quantitative terms. Tests have various kinds of norms-scales of values: social, age, etc. An individual indicator of the test is related to its norm. Tests are classified on several grounds, among which the most significant are: the form, content and purpose of psychological testing.

According to the content, tests can be allocated into several groups:

- intelligence tests - designed to identify and characterize human intelligence (thinking, memory, attention);

- achievement tests - are used to assess the degree to which the tested soldier has specific knowledge, mental skills and skills necessary to solve various tasks of military activity;

- Ability tests - aimed at identifying certain groups of qualities that, as professionally important, determine the success of a particular type of activity. In this regard, they distinguish ability tests by types of mental functions (sensory, motor) and by types of activity (technical and professional - mathematical, artistic and other abilities);

- group tests - are used in the diagnosis of group mental processes - the level of cohesion of groups and collectives, the characteristics of the group psychological climate, interpersonal relationships, the strength of the "pressure" of the group on its members, etc .;

- personality tests - designed to study various aspects of the personality: motivation, interests, value orientations, emotional storage, etc .;

- projective techniques - serve to study those deep individual personality traits that are least accessible to direct observation or questioning. The projection is based on the fact that the perception and interpretation of reality, the presented incentives to a certain extent depend on the needs, motives, attitudes, mental state of the individual. The methodological method of projective methods consists in presenting the subject with an insufficiently structured, indefinite, incomplete stimulus. This gives rise to processes of fantasy, imagination, which reveal certain characteristics of the personality of a military man. The use of projective techniques (free verbal association test, incomplete sentence method, Rosenzweig test, thematic apperceptive test, Rorschach method, etc.) requires high professional training and developed intuition of the psychologist conducting the examination.

Testing has been widely used in the practice of military psychologist. The choice of a specific methodology depends on the purpose, object and conditions of the study, the professional preparedness of the psychologist, material and technical equipment.

Кроме перечисленных методов изучения военнослужащих, психологом воинской части могут применяться также и другие методы.
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Средства психологического изучения военнослужащих и воинского коллектива

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    To accomplish the task of psychological study of personnel, a psychologist must possess a variety of methods of psychodiagnostics, a reasonable combination and application of which ensures the obtaining of objective information about military personnel. The main methods used by the psychologist are: • analysis of documents (biographical method); • survey (conversation, questionnaire); • observation and
  2. The study of the psychological characteristics of the military team
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