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The essence and content of the psychological analysis of erroneous actions (OD)
The methodological basis of the psychological analysis of erroneous actions (OD) is the theoretical concept of the human factor.
The human factor (FF) is understood as the totality of professional physiological, anthropometric, psychological and social capabilities and limitations of a person, which are not taken into account in the design of weapons, military equipment, methods of their use, tactics of using troops can lead to erroneous actions.
The structure of this phenomenon includes: moral, professional-military and psychological qualities, physiological characteristics and conditions, physical development, etc.
When using the Black Sea Fleet, the following are studied and taken into account:
• design of weapons and military equipment;
• layout, placement, means of encoding and displaying information;
• ergonomic workplace, habitat, equipment, protective equipment, microclimate in the home, lighting, gas composition;
• the content and structure of the activity process (methods of performing actions, the nature of information and physical load, pace of work, etc.);
• organization of activities, features of the regime of work and rest, leadership, management, comprehensive support of actions.
The psychological analysis of erroneous actions is carried out using the method of analysis of errors in the work of a specialist. When using this method, several of its features should be taken into account.
1. The method of error analysis is one of the most complex and is used, as a rule, in combination with others. At the same time, depending on the objectives of the study, error analysis can be carried out separately, without interconnection with other methods.
2. The method allows you to get various information:
• about typical mistakes of specialists and their psychological reasons;
• on the increased requirements of various types of professional activity for the neuropsychic regulation of a person;
• on the most complex and difficult professional tasks, the implementation of which is associated with an increased frequency of human errors;
• on the compliance of existing specialists with the requirements of error-free activity;
• on the ways of coordinating the requirements of professional activities for a specialist and the requirements of a specialist for activities.
3. The method is used mainly in the study of operator or other algorithmized military professional activity in the "man-equipment" system.
When identifying and qualifying the actions of military experts as erroneous, they should be separated from failures and errors.
Considering that in many cases psychological factors are the cause of erroneous actions by military personnel, recently military psychologists are more often involved in analyzing errors.
The essence of the psychological assessment of OD consists in the implementation of logical-temporal and structural-temporal analysis, suggesting its decomposition into macroelements according to the composition of movements and operations, according to the sequence and time of each operation, its assessment and decision-making.
The analysis of specialist errors consists of the following steps.
1. The study of activities and the identification of signs of erroneous actions of specialists.
2. Qualification of these actions as errors, errors or failures.
3. Diagnosis of the psychological causes of the identified errors.
4. Classification of established errors.
5. Definition of requirements for the psychological qualities of a person, ensuring error-free activity.
6. Drawing up a psychological conclusion.
7. Development of recommendations for the termination and prevention of ML. In the analysis of OD, the following are studied and evaluated:
a) the general state of health of a serviceman who committed ML:
• the intensity of the load in the previous period and when the OD occurred;
• regulation of the day, week, month;
• features of rest on vacation, before hostilities; characteristic of living conditions;
• state of physical health;
b) mental state before committing OD:
• the presence of official and family conflicts;
• long wait;
• excessive haste, determined by objective and subjective circumstances;
• relaxation after the successful completion of the combat phase;
All analytical work should answer the question: were the actions of the soldier optimal for specific objective conditions, and if not, what caused the failures.
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The essence and content of the psychological analysis of erroneous actions (OD)
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