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Typological models of character accentuation and psychopathy

Another reason for characterizing characters is the difference in the type and strength of accentuation, psychopathy.

This direction is important in that it allows you to more effectively and reliably identify those individuals who, due to the nature of their character, need help who do not correspond to the “norm” of the social environment or situations that are clearly experiencing disadaptation to activities.

P. B. Gannushkin wrote that “when people talk about“ normal personality ”, then ... they forget that the combination of two terms such as“ personality ”or“ individuality ”, on the one hand, and“ norm ”or“ average value ”- on the other hand, it is a combination of two essentially disagreeable terms. The same applies to the expression "normal character" ... because if we had ... a person with an ideal - normal psyche, then one could hardly speak about the presence of one or another "character". Such a person would be “characterless“ in the sense that he would always act without bias and the internal impulses of his activity would be constantly regulated by external agents ... ”3

P. B. Gannushkin believed that the doctrine of character types lies at the boundary between psychology and psychiatry, the study of patient behavior should not be limited only in the clinic of manifestations, but also whenever possible throughout the life path, only then can the temporal and the occasional be separated its transition is permanent and persistent. He believed that there are two ways of studying psychopathy - one from illness to health, the other - the opposite: from health to illness, the path having its usual starting point is the usual living environment that studies the personality in its relationship with the environment. On this way, a lot of time is devoted to the issues of education of life, profession, situation. Being often difficultly distinguishable from unreflected psychoses, on the other hand, they imperceptibly merge with the so-called norm, for between psychopathic features and the corresponding “simple human defects” the difference is only quantitative, not qualitative.

Another direction in this approach to character typology is the development of accentuated personality traits. The typological model of A.E. Lichko is based on the following message: psychopathy, as anomalies of character have three criteria - totality, relative stability of pathological character traits and social disadaptability. Deviations that satisfy only one or two criteria, an extreme variant of the norm, which does not manifest itself everywhere and always, but only under certain conditions - in fact there is an accentuation of character. They manifest themselves in such situations when there are increased requirements for locus minoris resistentiae - “the place of least resistance” in the nature of this type. If the trauma, even severe, is not addressed to the place of least resistance, if the situation does not impose specific requirements in this regard, then the case is usually limited to an adequate personal response. This is the most important difference between accentuation and psychopathy. This approach is based on the methodological foundations developed by K. Leongard, the typological model of which became the basis for conducting a psychological survey of young servicemen as part of this work.

K. Leongard, along with his typology of characters, developed a number of theoretical positions in the understanding and interpretation of character, the interaction of the personality with the outside world.

First of all, he notes that people differ from each other and from some “average level” and have psychological traits that give them individual personality characteristics and behavior. These features determine: the ability to achieve any result (ability to achieve the goal); determine the choice of method of achievement (individual style); defining the direction of interests and aptitudes (motivation). He attributes character and temperament to those traits that predetermine the individual style of personal behavior, the need to take into account in the daily practice of the troops is obvious, especially at the stage of initial adaptation of young military personnel.

The character of K. Leonhard is “... a very numerous set of stable personality traits that determine the direction of interests and inclinations, the sphere of associative and intellectual, feelings and will in relation to people, activities in the specifics of individual differences and acquired experience.” 1

Temperament is defined as a manifestation of congenital individual traits (genetically inherited) and determines the dynamic - speed, energy parameters of behavior.

Thus, from the definition we can conclude that C. Leongard identifies two essential characteristics in the definition of temperament and character: activity and reactivity in the typology of individual differences related to age, sex, social role, professional and cognitive activity, experience, which manifests itself later in the division of accentuations in diagnostic methods into those relating to one and the other personality traits. Consequently, temperament is a generalized dynamic characteristic of the personality's reactivity in its conscious and unconscious behavior, and character is a characteristic of activity, as a desire to constructively change a situation, go beyond it, or that integral part of individuality that is subject to change under the influence of psychotherapeutic influence.

It should be noted that C. Leongard emphasizes the importance of the external environment on the person: "... It is possible that the heredity and impressions of childhood have left a certain imprint on the features of the manifestation of these features in an adult. However, one thing is indisputable: the inclinations, the direction of interests, and the character of the whole person come from outside ... depends largely on the society in which he lives ... In the same way, the innate orientation of interests and inclinations does not in any way interfere with the educational ( highlighted by the author) impact. ”1

Speaking about the palette of differences between one person and another, the author of the typology emphasizes that there are a number of features that determine a person’s character, which, although numerous, nevertheless, their number cannot be considered unlimited. Certainly, K. Leongard believes that the list could be continued, but he writes: “Nevertheless, I am convinced that there are basic features of human individuality and character, exist objectively and that, therefore, science should strive to isolate and describe them . Naturally, this is connected with great difficulties, because it is not about adapting diffuse material to a more or less acceptable scheme, but about revealing the objectively existing, underlying concepts of “personality”, “character”, despite the presence of their numerous intersections. ”1

He, however, in his works highlights the following character traits:

Different combinations of these traits determine the individuality of behavior and the accentuation of behavior.

Accentuation of character is “... always in general implies an increase in the degree of a certain trait ... it is essentially the same individual traits, but with a tendency to transition to a pathological condition.” 2

The following types of character accentuations are distinguished: demonstrative type, pedantic type, stuck type and excitable type, as well as a combination of different types. In addition, K. Leongard considers six types of temperament accentuations: hyperthymic, dysthymic, affectively labile, affectively exalted, anxious, emotive. Character properties determine the direction of a person’s interests and the form of his reactions, while the tempo and depth of emotional reactions depend on temperament. Nevertheless, K. Leongard does not make a clear boundary between character and temperament. (Appendix 11)

Speaking about the differences between people, K. Leongard draws a clear distinction between the individual variation of “stencil behavior” and accentuation. He emphasizes that fluctuations in the manifestation of any character traits are observed constantly, but this cannot be called accentuated behavior. With a different interpretation, one can come to the conclusion that only an average person should be considered normal, and any deviation from such a middle (average norm) should be recognized as pathology. This makes it necessary to bring beyond the limits of normality that category of people about whom they say that it is “a strong personality with a firm, purposeful character,” emphasizing that they have a pronounced original mental makeup. If he does not manifest properties that give a picture of the pathology in his daily activities, this is an average, “normal person”.
In accentuated personalities, under the influence of environmental factors and imposing them on a character that already has a high degree of certain traits, behavioral deviations occur, and these personalities potentially contain both opportunities for socially positive achievements and a socially negative charge. ”Some accentuated personalities appear before us in a negative light, as life circumstances did not favor them, but it is possible that under the influence of other circumstances they would become yadnymi people. "1 (Annex 12)

Distinguish pathology from accentuation in personality “... only in relation to people who deviate from the standard, and then when external circumstances interfering with the normal course of life are excluded. However, different borderline cases need to be considered. ”2

The peculiar attitude of K. Leongard to the ratio of extroversion - introversion in the age range and gender identity of the person.

“The child is extroverted: he turns to the processes affecting his feelings, and reacts to them with appropriate behavior, thinking little. An adult, in comparison with a child, is introverted: it is much less occupied by the surrounding, external world, its reactions are much less direct, it is in the habit to preliminarily reflect on the act. ”In childhood, according to K.Leongard, extroversion in both sexes has the same form of expression . In adolescence, the turn towards introversion in boys is significantly sharper than in girls. Therefore, a woman is always more connected with the objective events of life, more dependent on them and in most cases has a more practical mind, but to make a rash decision inspired by the moment and act without weighing the consequences is always a real danger to her. A man better understands the interrelation of phenomena and the true, not always obvious causes of them, he is more inclined to generalizations, his thought works in the corresponding direction more effectively. The danger for a man is that he falls into theoretical discourse and misses the possibilities that require immediate action. As a result of this difference, one cannot equally regard accentuated extraversion and introversion in men and women. What is normal for a woman, extroversion for a man, and vice versa, what should be considered normal in men, should be considered as introverted in women.1

In his works, Leonard introduces a concept characterizing non-accentuated interaction and behavior, exploring the problems of contacts between people with different accentuation and the level of extraversion - introversion. He says that “... some people have a special gift to act on others in an expressive, disposing manner of communication, to sensitively understand the most subtle nuances of the feelings and moods of others. But there are people lacking such a gift, such sensitivity. The ability to establish contacts and weakened contact-finding function is often considered as something identical to extroversion and introversion, respectively, this is not true ... ”2

It is interesting to note the author of the typology that it is possible to talk about accentuation, determined not only by the external environment as the effects of certain conditions of a person’s behavior, life activity, interaction of people, but also accentuations determined by national (demographic) features that are most pronounced in children’s adolescence.

Thus, the mechanism of personality behavior according to Leonhard can be represented as follows. Any act in which certain character traits manifest themselves with varying degrees of severity turn out to be polydeterministic, that is, it has many external and internal causes. Moreover, external causes (external situational stimuli and conditions of behavior) act on a person not automatically, but through his individual abilities of perception and understanding (categorization) of the situation. If the person is not inclined to consider the situation objectively as alarming, then he will not show anxiety reaction. Internal factors of behavior also turn out to be at different levels. If the situation is not very clearly placed in a certain category, if perceived ambiguously (as a situation of uncertainty), then most likely the person will follow his temperament and “average” character properties: for example, an ambitious, with a developed sense of duty, the person will actively explore the situation, get the missing information from the outside, and weak, uncertain - will be cautious and will avoid any of its frightening uncertainties. If the situation is categorized by a person more unequivocally, “affects” to a rather strong dominant character traits, then he self-actualizes their significance and will act with the behavior strategy “usual” for this trait. “Compensating” traits will be suppressed. The accentuation of character will manifest itself and, in the case of a prolonged continuation of the influence of factors of a situation, may turn into pathology. But a situation may arise when circumstances contribute to the categorization of a situation in which the dominant traits are “localized” by the need to develop a behavior strategy with the implementation of compensatory traits, create conditions for comfort behavior. Then accentuated personalities show exceptional abilities and achieve high results.

Studies conducted by K. Leongard show that the character traits identified by him flexibly develop and change in a person throughout life, especially since they are at the stage of their primary formation in children, and therefore there is a possibility of reinforcing desirable character traits and smoothing overly pointed ( accentuated) features.

In the development of accentuations, considers K. Leongard, a partial breakdown of social adaptation largely blocks the form of behavior, towards which accentuation is expressed, accompanied by a decrease in critical behavior and self-esteem, “aggression” in various manifestations to criticism from the outside, under certain conditions, it creates prerequisites for an avalanche-like growth of accentuated features. The criticality of accentuants can be defined “... as a personal mechanism of integrative semantic regulation of individual activity, allowing you to plan and unfold it in a specific situation, taking into account the relationship of personal and social in the real behavior of the subject.” 1 In these circumstances, the personal meaning never directly coincides with their objective by value. Under certain conditions, this discrepancy may lead to the fact that the subject ceases to evaluate his actions from the point of view of socially developed norms, does not correlate the actually arising subjective motives with supra-situational sustainable motivational formations and values. Then human behavior can become uncritical, inadequate to the current situation, its objective relationships and relationships. 1

Thus, Leonard in his typology of character reveals the features of human individuality, the various combinations of which determine the accentuation of character, divorces the concepts of character accentuations and temperament, distinguishes accentuation and pathology, determines the factors of development and accentuation of accentuation (environment, circumstances, gender, age).

Having considered the main approaches to the typology of characters, it seems possible to draw some conclusions:

• Multivariance of individual personality traits requires in modern psychology a typology of similar traits, incl. and character, the main approaches to the classification are based on one or another personality theory, and by this we can distinguish the main approaches (typological models of social characters, models of individual characters, psychoanalytic types of models, typological models of deviations (psychopathies) and accentuations);

• almost all approaches imply a relative constancy of character, with the possibility of its changing under the influence of the external environment and social environment;

• важной проблемой в типологиях являются понятия “норма” и “патология” характера, которые решаются в рамках соответствующей теории личности;

• одной из типологий характера является подход К.Леонгарда, который вводит наряду с другими психологами понятие акцентуации характера, как крайней формы проявления нормы;

• типологии в рамках теорий личности позволяют обозначить подходы и принципы работы психолога по изменению некоторых черт характера, что актуально в ВС РФ в сложных современных условиях жизнедеятельности войск.
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Typological models of character accentuation and psychopathy

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