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Typological models of characters in modern psychology. Approaches to the definition of accentuations
The first attempt to classify characters belongs to Plato (4th century BC), who created a typology of characters based on ethical principles (man - worker, man - warrior and sage - philosopher). After Plato in ancient Greek literature, the problem of characters was Aristotle's disciple Theophrastus. His classification of the types then common in Athenian society was considered for many years to be an example of a typology of characters.
The first attempt to classify characters for a scientific purpose was made by the founder of phrenology Gallem. That first half of the 19th century is considered the beginning of the emergence of the science of character. In Gall's theory, 27 elementary mental abilities are listed from which the human character is composed.
Despite the criticism of the list of Gall's 27 abilities, despite the fact that the phrenology itself, which Gall created, did not last long, it is interesting to note the first five of this list: 1) the reproduction instinct; 2) love for posterity; 3) affection, friendship; 4) propensity to active struggle and the need for self-defense; 5) destructive instinct.
In 1896, F.Jordano's book “Character from the point of view of the body and the genealogy of man” was published in England. For the first time, a new, fundamentally different view of character appeared. He writes: “There are two characters that are fundamentally different from each other, two clearly expressed types of characters (with a third intermediate): one type has a strong tendency towards activity, and a tendency towards reflection is weak: the other has a predilection for reflection, while the desire to activity turns out to be weaker. ” By Jung's definition: “Jordan describes in general only the extrovert and introverted types”. Besides, F.Jordano for the first time touches upon the problem of “psychological types in biography”, which was further continued by V.Ostwald, E. Krechmer.
An interesting classification was tried to create by F. Polan in his book Psychology of Character. According to him, our spiritual life consists of a number of aspirations, which, combining with each other and influencing each other, form the whole complexity of the human personality. These aspirations, combining among themselves according to strict laws, determine the structure of our character. The laws are as follows. First: the law of systematic delay is the ability of some aspirations to suppress others, directly opposite. The second law: the law of systematic association, which consists in the fact that the individual elements of mental life have the ability to induce to activity other elements that are with them in dependence. He points to other laws: associations by opposites, adjacencies, and others.
F.Polan's classification was not so much a grouping of the most important characters, as a list of the most important qualities and peculiarities related to mental life and the content of feelings.
N.Lossky’s views are close to this classification, but he considers the main primary feature of mental activity to be a will, characterized by a special type of activity, thanks to which everything we experience is colored by our sense of “I.” .Lossky; he divides all people into types: sensual, egocentric and supra-personal. The superpersonal type is characterized by the predominance of superpersonal aspirations. These aspirations are, as it were, data from the outside, and their source is not in the physical needs of the organism, but in factors of a higher order, religious, scientific, and aesthetic demands. These people act as if not from themselves, but on behalf of a higher will, which they recognize as the leader of their actions, that is, this is a prototype of the concept of “self-actualization”.
One of the first Russian character typologies can be called the provisions of the theory of P.Lesgaft. It is about his work "Family education of the child and its value." A.F. Lazursky wrote that “what P.Lesgaft calls school types ... can be considered as a classification of children's characters” 2. This work is of particular importance for national psychology, not so much by the accuracy of observations and the content of typology, but by its fundamental tendency. Starting from this work, the entire 20th century in the national child and age psychology will be held in terms of “family - child”, excluding the alternative, important point of view - “child - family”.
But with their originality and unconditional innovation, all the listed typologies were too general, and the authors' access to the typology was of a secondary, explaining type. There was no system, a justification of approaches. And only the beginning of the 20th century can be considered the beginning of the formation of the main directions in the principles of classification (typology) of characters. Based on the analysis of the existing literature, it is possible to formulate the following approaches:
• typological models of social characters;
• typological models of individual characters;
• psychoanalytic typological models;
• integral typological models of deviations (psychopathy) and accentuations.
Let us consider briefly the main theories within the framework of the above approaches.
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Typological models of characters in modern psychology. Approaches to the definition of accentuations
- Typological models of character accentuation and psychopathy
Another reason for characterizing characters is the difference in the type and strength of accentuation, psychopathy. This direction is important in that it allows you to more effectively and reliably identify those individuals who, due to the nature of their character, need help who do not correspond to the “norm” of the social environment or situations that are clearly experiencing disadaptation to activities.
- Typology of character and accentuations in modern psychology. A sticking type of accentuation of character and features of its manifestation in military personnel
Typology of character and accentuations in modern psychology. Sticking type of accentuation of character and features of its manifestation in
- Accentuations of character. Classification according to Leonard, Licko. Typological characteristic. Medical and pedagogical correction
Character accentuations are extreme variants of the norm, in which individual character traits are excessively strengthened, as a result of which selective vulnerability is revealed with respect to a certain kind of psychogenic effects with good and even increased resistance to others ... Depending on the degree of expression, we identified two degrees of character accentuation : explicit and hidden (Personally,
- Typological models of social characters
Perhaps the first time the concept of "social nature" was formulated by A.F. Lazursky. He wrote: ”An ideal classification should be one that in each of its types would give not only the subjective characteristics of a given person, but also his world view and social physiology, since, of course, they stand in connection with his character: in other words, personality classification must be
- Psychoanalytic Typological Models
In parallel with the numerous attempts to create a typology of characters, built on different principles, there was a formation of the concept and typology of characters in the psychoanalytic direction. For the first time the psychoanalytic concept of character was formulated by Z. Freud in 1908 in the article “Character and Anal Erotica”. He argued that the ever-present combination of three character traits:
- Accentuations of the nature and behavior disorders of a teenager
As noted at the beginning of the chapter, the difficulties that adolescents experience are due, among other things, to its characterological features. We are talking about the so-called character accentuation, manifested in adolescence and affecting the behavior of adolescents. Earlier, in connection with the analysis of the development of the adolescent’s individual self-consciousness, including such a component as the system of attitudes towards
- Character accentuation
Doctors and psychologists of the hospital noted that the wounded at the initial stage of treatment had some character accentuations: heightened situational anxiety, alertness and suspicion, reduced ability to control their emotions and the need for group support. The observed phenomenon can be characterized as a response of the individual to an extreme situation of injury, which
- The nature and types of his accentuation
Character is a set of stable personality traits that determine the attitude of a person towards people towards the work performed. Character manifests itself in activity and communication and includes that which gives a person’s behavior a specific, characteristic tint. The main problems of characterology are the establishment of types of character in order to predict human behavior in various situations.
- Mental health rights. Character accentuation
Mental health, as defined by the World Health Organization, is a condition that contributes to the most complete physical, mental and emotional development of a person. Mental health is a state of balance between a person and the outside world, the adequacy of his reactions to the social environment, as well as physical, biological and mental effects, compliance
- Analysis of the impact of character accentuation on personal professional growth
To analyze the impact of character accentuation on the professional growth of a person, we reviewed the biography of Russian writer Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (1809-1852). N.V. Gogol was born in the town of Great Sorochintsy of the Mirgorod district of the Poltava province in the family of a landowner. The mother showed great concern for the religious upbringing of her son, who, however, was influenced not so much by the ceremonial
- Sticking type of accentuation of character and features of its manifestation in young soldiers
So, we will consider the various character traits that form a person as a person in cases where they represent a deviation from a certain standard and are defined as stuck accentuation and features of its manifestation in military personnel. This is all the more relevant in light of the difficult situation that has developed with the mental health of draftees. Thus, for 1,000 people called up there are 47 people with
- The nature of modern wars and armed conflicts
The level of threats and uncertainties have a significant impact on the development of the military-political and military-strategic situation in the world, on the creation of hotbeds of tension and conflict zones, on the character of a warrior and armed conflicts. It should be noted that wars and armed conflicts of the future will be generated not by one even very significant factor, but by a complex interweaving
- “Compliance of the basic characteristics of certain types of elites in the modern Russian society with a theoretical model”
The fifth chapter consists of three sections, which examine the main typologies of elites, reflected in the social sciences at the present stage, common and specific in the psychology of the political, business and cultural-intellectual elites, as well as the correspondence of the psychological characteristics of modern Russian elites to the theoretical model. There are several approaches to the typology of elites: 1)
- Modern psychological approaches
After reviewing the historical foundations of psychology, we can examine in detail some of the main modern psychological approaches. What is the approach? Generally speaking, the approach is a definite point of view, a way to consider the topic being studied. To the study of any topic related to the field of psychology, can be approached from different perspectives. In fact, this is true of
- Characteristics of the elements of the psychological model of modern combat
Let us consider in more detail the elements of the psychological model of battle listed above. 1. The object of the confrontation determines the qualitative and quantitative parameters of all other elements of the model. The history of wars and military art convincingly proves that the object of confrontation in battle and war is not territory, not military objects and military equipment, and not even the living force of the opposing side, but
- Two ways of life (according to S. L. Rubinstein) - two models of human professional activity in the modern world
The position of S. L. Rubinshtein's theory is a methodological regulator of modern scientific research in various areas of psychological knowledge, primarily in the study of the characteristics of a person’s personal and professional development in modern sociocultural conditions. Recent crises exacerbated the discreteness of the “person – education – profession” system, exacerbated the problem of choice
- Competence approach in modern Russian education
In the past decade, theorists and practitioners of innovative education have talked about the need for a specialist to develop not only certain knowledge and skills, but also special “competencies” focused on the ability to put them into practice, in real life, when creating new competitive products in various life situations . As a result, there is a need for a new
- Oral contraceptives - modern approach
The advantages of three-phase contraception and monophasic preparations containing third-generation progestogens: a. low hormone levels provide a decrease in the inhibitory effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary system, while maintaining high contraceptive effectiveness. b. in multiphase preparations, fluctuating estrogen and progestogen ratios mimic cyclical changes in the level
- “Conceptual model and mechanisms of formation of the readiness of the psychologist of education for professional activity”
Chapter III substantiates the author's concept of solving a research problem, the corresponding psychological-pedagogical model of a system-continuous readiness formation, as well as the mechanisms and conditions for its formation at the pre-university and university stages. The concept of the formation of the readiness of the psychologist of education to professional activity is a set of basic provisions
- "Model specialist" psychologist
This is a sample of a specialist with a higher education, based on the study of personality traits and the structure of the activities of people who successfully work after graduation. The closer to the end of the university is the student, the closer to the model should be his personal qualities, knowledge and skills. The laboratory of Kazan University has developed a model of a specialist, which consists of four levels,