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Nodal sections of military-psychological science of the mid-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

Russian military-psychological thought is distinguished by the fact that the problem of personality has always stood out in it as the most important. Its scientific development using general psychological and military psychological methods began in the second half of the 19th century. This is due to:

Cultural and historical conditions for the development of Russia and the Russian army. The presence of humanistic traditions, a moral and ethical basis for studying the personality of a warrior.

Major changes in society and the army as a result of the reforms (1860-1870).

A change in the social and material situation of military personnel.

The needs of military science and practice in creating a system of military education based on scientific ideas about the psychology of a warrior. The high level of development of general psychology. Until the middle of the 19th century, the category “personality of a warrior” was more of a philosophical significance. Information about the personality of a warrior was mainly embodied in the views of the advanced people of his time: leaders, generals, scientists and writers on the essence of military affairs. They expressed the most general that is inherent in the Russian warrior, and the list of qualities of a soldier necessary for the victory of the army on the battlefield. And from the 80-90s, after changing the nature of military service and the army itself, an active study of the personality problem of a warrior began, which was based both on its own military-psychological knowledge and on the conclusions of Russian psychological science, which during that period studied “psychology” living, active, real person. The prevailing point of view at that time was the opinion that “only attribution to the personality makes such psychological categories as feeling, mind, will, and reality, all these spiritual qualities outside the personality only“ logical abstraction ”. And on this point of view there were many experts who dealt with problems of military psychology. By this time, military science came to the conclusion that the development of military affairs, a change in the methods of warfare, require such a system of military education, where the warrior as a person with "unshakable devotion to military affairs, outstanding consciousness of actions, enterprise, independence and resourcefulness, humility is in the center military affairs and discipline, inexhaustible bodily and spiritual energy, a penchant for close service to partnership, and most importantly, selfless courage, courage, determination and selflessness yu. " The development of individual psychology / psychology of a warrior’s personality / during this period can be represented in the form of the following trends: a man-warrior is a separate person participating in a battle; the personality of a warrior - features, the individuality of a warrior that distinguishes this warrior from another, is a person who has his own individual characteristics inherent only to him;

personality as an aggregate to a social group before serving in the army and which it acquires during the period of service; the personality of a warrior as a category for designating a conscious subject of activity,

a specific person engaged in military and primarily military activities.

This can be represented in the form of the following table of definitions of personality.

Identification of a warrior

A feature of the development of military psychology in Russia was that the warrior was studied realistically, i.e. included in a specific social community, group, military unit, unit. The psychology of the group becomes a pronounced line of research in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This was due to the following circumstances:

1. A change in battle tactics. The transition from linear constructions to a loose formation, to a chain led to a change in the socio-psychological conditions of the fighting activity of soldiers. The soldier gained greater independence, and the commander - responsibility in the management of subordinates.

2. Transitions to new types of weapons requiring collective maintenance, gun crews totaled 7-12 people. Armored cars, armored trains, planes, ships had crews, machine guns were serviced by crew, etc.

Military psychologists acknowledge that next to the psychology that deals with the individual, there is a place for psychology that studies "various human groups", since any social group, although they consist of individual elements, is, as a social whole, something other than the arithmetic sum of units , it's a bit of a chemical compound.

3. Studies of combat activity have shown that the influence of the same factors on an individual soldier and on the mass is different.

4. Passion for the size of the army, the creation of new units and divisions,

the formation of new military collectives and groups. This is evidenced by data on January 1, 1881 and 1904.

5. With a reduction in service life, socio-psychological conditions have changed. With a 25-year term, soldiers, drafted into the army, actually broke off all relations with his family, now, with a 6-year service, the barracks became only a certain period of life.

6. A change in the national composition of military units. Starting from the 70s, manning was carried out in such a way that in each separate unit 75% of the soldiers were Russian, and the rest were representatives of national minorities. These changes required the development and study of the psychology of small and large groups. At the beginning of the twentieth century, military psychology "is divided into two independent parts, which can be called individual psychology, which treats the mental phenomena of individuals and the other - collective psychology, which explores the same in relation to groups of people." Moreover, the number of publications devoted to socio-psychological problems Russian army is constantly growing:

Russian military psychology, while studying the socio-psychological phenomena within the army, also studied the attitude of society to the army, the influence of this relationship on the foundation of the army, on the feelings and moods of a warrior. For example, the subject of research is Galkina M.V. (“the new way of the modern officer” in 1906) was the influence of society’s attitude on the state of the army. Much combined military psychology with general psychological thought, but military psychologists had their own way of studying social and psychological phenomena. It differed: in practical orientation, conclusions from research should they served to increase combat readiness, improve military education, control tasks; study of socio-psychological phenomena not only in large communities, crowds and masses, but also in small groups; psychol Gia crowd psychology and the army varied objectives, the nature of activities and manageability. recognition of the possibility of applying the knowledge of individual psychology in the study of psychological phenomena in groups in the Russian military psychology in the late 1 century begins to use the category of "social group", an attempt to create a classification of social communities. One of the first to do this was Zykov. He identified the following social formations: family, social group, clan, estate, community, nationality, state. Military units and subdivisions make up social groups that have one of the important characteristics - sustainability. Zykov considered the basis of the classification the duration of the existence of communities, the presence of social principles in these groups, and the unity of moral impulses. A large role in considering the army as an object of social psychology belongs to Rezanov A.S. In his opinion, the army in its psychological qualities is related to the so-called crowd. ” He understood the crowd as a community of people, united by certain laws of functioning. Rezanov identifies the following elements for characterizing the varieties of "collectives": unity of action, unity of will, unity of consciousness, unity of place and time, the presence of public opinion that characterizes communication and spiritual connection. Socio-psychological phenomena occurring in the Russian army have long been interested in military psychology. The subject of collective psychology is the components of social consciousness: moods, public opinion, traditions, authority, leadership, competition, imitation, relations between Zykov regarded military units as social groups, the existence of which is many times longer than the existence of individuals. The peculiarity of military social groups is the "existence" of social principles - the rules that govern the activities of group members. "Such principles, in his opinion, are the concepts of duty The honor of the regiment, uniform, legality and obligation, readiness to lay one’s head for one another, the authority of the boss, the love of subordinates and care for them, the ideas of Slavism and Christianity. In addition, the activities of the group are regulated by public opinion, which tacitly orders the warrior to do so, and not otherwise. In the event that a person acts contrary to public opinion, he will suffer punishment in the form of censure, expressed by individual members of the group or authorized persons on its behalf. In addition, military traditions were a social regulator of behavior in army collectives. They, as Zykov believed, are a means of influencing people of a certain part. Persistence of tradition is facilitated by "attachment to visible objects, such as banners and other military shrines." FROM

For this purpose, military museums were created in the units. To assess the state, the category of "cohesion" was widely used, which characterized the close relationship of the relations of soldiers of a certain unit or unit. Cohesion, according to Zykov, is much weaker in peacetime than in wartime, and stronger when the unit is in a foreign country than in its own. Military psychology in Russia developed both a psychology of peacetime and wartime, due to the peculiarities of the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, when there was practically no decade without a war in which the Russian army I would not participate.
In addition, in military psychology, a position has been established on the leading importance for the development of research on the psychology of combat and war. So, Mikhnevich argued that “war is transferred to the field of psychic phenomena,” according to Leer, “man was, is and will be the main instrument of war.” Corf believed:

"To prepare a battle, to prepare an offensive - is equivalent to the concept - to undermine, undermine, kill the psychic forces of the enemy." At the same time, he identified 4 groups of factors that influence the psyche of a fighter during a battle: “1) a group of external material battle factors (weapons, strength, external form of battle, etc.); 2) battle management; 3) the system of education of soldiers; 4) general social factors. ” For Shumkov G.E. The study of combat psychology has been the subject of many years of research. He wrote: "Just as there is something more important and essential in the important and necessary, so in the field of military affairs the most important and most essential part, the central part in which the various fields of military knowledge converge, is battle." Before military psychology, as a practical branch of psychological knowledge, the task was to build a system of psychological knowledge about human combat activity, to create a psychology of battle and war. A feature of the wars of the Х1Х - XX centuries, according to G.E. Shumkov, was that their “participants decide the outcome of battles at a distance, rarely converging for hand-to-hand combat, which was the rule in ancient battles.” Danger to human life was a feature of military activity Korf singled out in it the external side - the destruction of the enemy with weapons on the battlefield, he called it the material, and the internal - the spiritual side. Moreover, "the internal struggle begins in the imagination of a man - a fighter from the moment of battle, when there is a minute of danger in him for his life. ”The following schedule (see p. 79) indicates an increase in research on the psychology of combat activity. Over the period from 1900 to 1917, more than 101 publications on the psychology of combat activity appeared in print. According to N. Golovin, the center of gravity of studies of man as a fighter, moved to the study of the psychology of man as a fighter. He highlighted the structure of combat activity, its external sides: “the idea of ​​battle is to subordinate the will of the enemy, the purpose of the battle is to defeat the enemy, and motives are the desire of the fighter to win. And the study of the battle is divided into two parts: 1) The study of the factors of the battle, which determine the activities of man in battle. 2) The study of the activities and properties of man as a fighter. " Polyansky, Shumkov, Dmitrievsky and others stood in the same position. Investigating the factors affecting the combat activity of soldiers, Russian military psychologists identified and combined them into 4 groups:

Military psychologists saw their task in the study of the state of man - a fighter during his combat activities. this area of ​​mental phenomena is enclosed in the framework between a person’s overall health and his illness, due to which he is unable to carry his weapon.

The study of the psyche of fighters during battles, their activities should, according to Shumkov, “be based on the following provisions: a) There are no accidents in the war, everything is subject to certain laws both in the sphere of external phenomena and in the psyche; b) The study of combat should be strictly scientific, based only on the study of facts and phenomena; c) In each fighter, it is necessary to recognize a person who undergoes a change under the influence of the situation; d) The absolute will of the fighter does not exist, but there are his actions, unconditionally obeying the law of causality; e) The study of a fighter must be psychophysiological; f) Military psychology, while retaining its applied character, must study the fighter’s performance and his fighting strength. ” The mental, mental state of a warrior in battle, according to B. Polyansky, “is a decisive area of ​​the human psyche that affects his combat performance.” He called the states an emotive sphere and related feelings, instincts, affects, emotions and moods to it. Speaking about the role of the emotive sphere, Polyansky emphasized: “An idea as a simple fact of consciousness cannot produce anything, it is powerless in the fight against emotions and can act only when it acquires a sensual color ... The emotional area of ​​the psyche becomes even more important for us if to recall that in all military operations we are dealing with a “mass fighter,” that is, phenomena of collective psychology. Studying the conditions, the causes of their occurrence, and the characteristics of the course led to the conclusion that it was necessary to create a classification - “practice mental division of mental illness in the war ", which should give" a correct judgment on how the service reflects on the mental health of a soldier "and will help establish" under what circumstances and in what part of the troops, or in which area the incidence of mental illness increases and decreases, and hence the prevention, and the study of mental disorders in the active forces. By the time of the onset of the disease, Shumkov identified:

1. Pre-war psychoses - cases of diseases of mental underdevelopment, premature dementia. The task is to prevent obviously sick people from going to the theater of war.

2. Psychoses (during) the war - which in turn break up into: 1. rear psychoses; 2. positional psychoses; 3. combat psychosis or medium, developed in individuals who participated in battles.

3. Psychoses after the war - harmful moments can act on the human psyche gradually and give violations not during the war, but after. Since “the nomenclature of psychoses with the division into acute and chronic does not capture in their concepts all personality disorders of a warrior in a war, Shumkov suggested subdividing almost all psychoses into the following forms:

1. group - neuropsychological instability to the phenomena of war, short-term violations of the personality of a warrior in combat conditions that express the instability of the neuropsychic organization of a warrior. This includes mental disorders from the inability to see blood and tormented corpses, the inability to endure sharp sound impressions, the inability to melee bayonet in the enemy - in general, all those mental disorders that come "from the horrors of war" - forms of military neurasthenia, hysteria, etc. .

Group 2 - transient psychoses. They take a short time, for example, 2-3 days, a week, two, a month, and quickly pass and give a complete mental recovery. survivors need treatment in psychiatric hospitals, returning to the army.

Group 3 - acute psychoses. These are psychoses for more than a month. they can be classified as acute, although treatable, but require a longer treatment.

Group 4 - chronic psychoses - incurable. This classification has made a great contribution to the development of military psychiatry. It also allowed to systematize the impact of combat experience on the psyche of a warrior, pushed the boundaries of military-psychological knowledge. In military psychology, a serious attempt was made to identify the mechanism of influence on human activity and behavior in battle. In order to give a psychological justification for the management of combat activities of personnel, research works were carried out by A. Zykov. “How and by what people are managed” 1898, “Discipline and initiative” 1909, “Purpose and means” 1908, “Choice of chiefs”

1909 г. Он исходил из положения, что «ведение войны требует такого влияния на поступки людей, при которых их действия идут вразрез с могущественным законом самосохранения». В первую очередь в схеме поступка человека в бою он выделяет борьбу мотивов, которая определяет решающий фазис поступка - решение. Поэтому Зыков в качестве задачи своего исследования видит определение способов влияния на мотивы поступка человека в бою. Одним из них он выделил « влияние силой ощущения». Речь идет о том, как ограничивать вредные внешние воздействия и строгим подчинением, дисциплиной сковать впечатлительность воина. Следующий способ - это « влиянием и ослаблением идей", который состоит в том, чтобы, вызывая какое-нибудь представление, с расчетом возбудить ассоциацию идей, конечным пунктом которой будет желаемая нам идея». В качестве третьего способа он видел влияние изменением хода ассоциаций как разрушение вредной ассоциации. Перечисленные способы воздействия относятся к мотивационной сфере личности. В процессе управления необходимо также и воздействие на эмоциональную сферу. Этот способ Зыков называл «иррадиация чувственного тона» как влияние на эмоции, чувства, настроения и состояния. для сохранения чувственного тона у человека в бою должна быть обеспечена устойчивость господствующей идеи, решительность как стремление ускорить наступление положительного тона.


Военная психология в России во второй половины Х1Х - начале ХХ века выделяется в самостоятельную отрасль психологической науки, имеющую свою систему и структуру психологических знаний, свой предмет, методы и задачи. С самого начала личность воина была важнейшей проблемой и предметом военной психологии. Вместе с тем столь же пристально осуществлялось изучение социально- психологических явлений в армии. Они также были предметом исследований военных психологов. Психологам удалось создать классификации групп, психологических явлений в массах военнослужащих, вскрыть механизм и способы управления различными общностями военнослужащих в разных условиях. Воинская деятельность как реальность, объединяющая усилия личности и коллектива, исследовалась с учетом ее особенностей в условиях мирного времени и боевая деятельность - с выделением содержательных характеристик.

Полученные военными психологами Х1Х - ХХ вв. результаты созвучны положениям, проблемам, задачам современной военной психологии и это делает их значимыми не только для разработки истории военной психологии, как одной из важнейших опорных основ этой науки, но и для проводимых фундаментальных и прикладных исследований в интересах военного строительства в условиях осуществляемой реформы в соответствии с перспективами военного дела.
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