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Types and forms of students knowledge control

An integral part of the educational process at the military department is the control of students' learning of educational material and the assessment of their knowledge and skills.

The main task of control is to ensure a high scientific level of students' knowledge, the strength of practical skills. Control is directly related to the process of learning. In this case, it serves as a feedback.

Feedback, as a clearly formulated concept, was first introduced into practice in connection with the emergence of cybernetics. However, in fact, the need for feedback was recognized by psychologists and physiologists as early as the 19th century and was theoretically understood in the works of I.P. Pavlova, P.K. Anokhin.

In cybernetics, feedback is interpreted as information about the state of the controlled system going to the control system. This interpretation is applicable in relation to the educational process. Feedback allows you to assess the state of the system (educational process) on the output indicators of information and manage it, correcting the deviations of these indicators by influencing the input parameters.

For the educational process, the output indicators of the system are the knowledge and skills of students acquired during the course of study.

In the educational process, feedback is divided into internal and external.

Internal feedback is directed to the student and allows him, based on the analysis of his own mistakes, to correct them and improve the system of knowledge acquisition.

External feedback is directed to the teacher. With its help, the teacher has the opportunity to assess the state of the learning process on the basis of certain indicators for assessing the knowledge and skills of students.

The definition of an objective picture of the current state of the educational process is not the control of students for fixing the assessment, but the determination of the degree of effectiveness of the educational process.

Indicators of external feedback can be students' activity in all types of classes, their independent work, answers to the teacher's questions.

This kind of feedback requires from the teacher a special organization and appropriate methodological training.

The main goals of knowledge control are:

- determining the degree of achievement of the set learning goals;

- identifying the attitude of students to academic work;

- stimulation of independent work of students;

- obtaining information necessary to manage the educational process, to improve the teaching methods and organizational forms of students' independent work.

There are several pedagogical functions of control: the test, training, educational and organizing.

The verification function provides an opportunity to constantly study and know the actual state of the training process, to compare its content and methods with the needs of the troops.

The training function is expressed in the fact that the analyzed and summarized control data, reflecting the experience of the educational process, becomes the property of the entire staff of the military department.

The educational function is that control stimulates teachers and students, contributing to fostering a conscientious attitude to academic work, developing will and perseverance, and develops self-criticism.

The organizing function is designed to ensure the implementation of the curriculum and the objectives of the curriculum. Control contributes to the improvement of the organization of educational, methodical and educational work, increases the organization of students.

These knowledge control functions are based primarily on well-known didactic teaching principles, such as ideological and scientific nature, the level of control for students, consistency and regularity.

The analysis of the experience and the conducted studies show that during the control of knowledge it is necessary to proceed from the following principles:

- completeness of control, that is, the coverage of the control of all students in the learning process. This principle is necessary to provide a feedback function;

- planned control, which takes into account the entire scope of control in a given discipline by content, level, time and deadlines;

- the reliability of the results of the control, which is essential both for educational and educational purposes: assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the student’s personality, interest in learning, increasing personal responsibility;

- objectivity of control. This requirement implies a reduction in the subjective influence of teachers on the results of control. The requirement of objectivity is ensured by the corresponding development of the control educational material and the assessment of students' knowledge on the basis of this material;

- differentiation of control by level. This requirement implies that the depth (level) of control must be in accordance with the goals that were set when studying the controlled educational material;

- automation of knowledge control, that is, the use of technical means, taking into account the purpose of control and the specifics of the controlled educational material;

- the simplicity of the organizational forms of control. By its form, the control system should be organized in such a way as to minimize the time spent by teachers and students.

The system of testing and assessing knowledge, skills and abilities includes interrelated types and forms of control. Their interrelation is, first of all, that the purposes of the control are coordinated.
Thus, its general and final goals follow from the requirements for the volume of knowledge, skills and abilities, and partial (intermediate) from the installations of the curricula of disciplines. A more detailed check (especially during the study of disciplines) is consistent with the objectives of the individual classes. The combination of various types and forms of control will be a system only when all its goals and particular tasks will be united by a single structural scheme. When it is possible to trace how, at what stages, and in what sequence the verification of the achievement of each final goal of training is carried out.

The following types of control were developed at the military department: current, periodic, final.

The current control is used to check students 'mastery of the discipline material and is the main means of providing feedback in the educational process, necessary to improve the teaching methods of the discipline and to stimulate students' independent work. It can be carried out in the following forms: selective or frontal survey, individual interviews, checking abstracts and various reporting materials, tests, volunteers, checking independent tasks, etc. The complex use of various forms allows you to assess in a timely manner how deeply learned the studied material and how students are prepared for classes.

In the process of current control, the teacher has the opportunity to study the individual qualities and abilities of students, which makes the educational work focused and specific. In the current control, its teaching and organizing functions are especially pronounced.

Periodic control differs from the current one in that the test function is more pronounced in it. It is conducted less frequently than the current one, and usually covers entire sections of the curriculum. The main forms of periodic control are tests and exams (except for the exam for the entire academic discipline).

The final control serves to check the quality of the students' implementation of the curriculum and is carried out in the form of an exam for the entire discipline. The main goal of the final control is to determine the achievement of the set learning goals.

It ends with a final exam, the results of which serve as the basis for awarding the graduate of the university with the appropriate qualifications. All considered types of control are interrelated and complement each other.

The most common forms of control are: quizzes, tests and exams.

Examinations are used to verify the mastery of the current educational material. They are conducted, as a rule, on the most complex topics of the curriculum, as well as on the material that was given for self-study. A variety of test papers are volunteers conducted mainly in operational-tactical disciplines.

For tests and checks, in most cases, individual tasks are developed. Sometimes short-term frontal checks of students' preparedness on certain issues are also sometimes called fly-outs. Students are usually not warned in advance about such a check.

Offsets are mainly used to verify that students do practical work, acquire practical and team skills, master the educational material of group and seminar classes, as well as disciplines for which no examinations are held. Offsets are usually conducted by individual survey with or without preliminary preparation of students. The survey can be conducted in the presence of the entire training platoon or the composition of the group at the training site. In this case, you can use a collective discussion of the questions posed. The method of conducting the test is chosen taking into account the specifics of the academic discipline, the nature of the material being studied, the degree of preparedness of students. At the standings must be taken into account the activity of students in all types of previous classes, as well as when performing individual tasks, self-study. Offsets can be held with tickets and without tickets, which does not limit the teacher in the choice of test questions.

The exam is the main form of final control. Its main goal is to check the degree and depth of assimilation of theoretical material, the skills and abilities to apply this knowledge in solving specific practical problems, as well as the ability to work independently with special literature.

Examinations are held by ticket. The advantage of the ticket system is that the questions are clearly formulated. Cases of their duplication are excluded, and all examinees are on an equal footing when choosing a ticket. The teaching function of examinations is manifested in the students' deep understanding of the subject and methods of studying science, the connection between its various parties and its place in a number of other scientific disciplines.

One of the difficult tasks of the examiner is to accurately determine the depth of knowledge of students. There is a simplified, but important formula that many experienced teachers adhere to: the examiner must answer three basic questions - “what”, “how” and “why”. This means that he should not only describe, for example, a process and explain how this process is carried out, but also reveal the causes of the phenomena accompanying it, show the nature of causal relationships, approach the disclosure of the question posed to him dialectically.
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