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Military Psychology and Deep Theories

Behavioralism, used to solve a number of military problems, did not at all study a number of aspects of the personality, the importance of taking into account which in conditions of combat activity is especially obvious. It is primarily about such mental processes and properties as feelings, behavior motivation and others. This served as the basis for the use in military psychology of the corresponding theories of deep psychology.

... Freud's works on issues of war, civilization and death are a reliable source of preparation for war, for they show how, without self-denial, the instinct of self-preservation can be neutralized. The finally formed deep direction included the theory of unconscious drives of Z. Freud, the hormistic psychology of McDaugall, the anthropological psychology of Jensch, the theory of deep instinct of Bergson, the ideas of neo-Malthusianism, social Darwinism, the genetic school of social psychology of Kleinberg and others, should also be included here. introduces into military psychology such ideological, methodological, and theoretical principles that impose insurmountable restrictions on it. We are convinced of this by a simple analysis of some basic principles of deep psychology used by military psychologists as the theoretical basis of the research and the recommendations made to the troops. Deep psychologists recognize the driving forces of human behavior as unconscious deep drives - instincts that determine the actions of a person in any conditions, in any activity, including social. The psyche comes down to the sum of deep aspirations. So, Z. Freud, whose theory was the foundation of all the later deep currents in psychology, argued that the whole sum of mental processes is opposed to consciousness as a region of the preconscious. A very large part of this preconscious comes from the unconscious. Freud’s theoretical principles were largely assimilated later in the individual psychology of Alfred Adler, in the psychology of Karl G. Jung, etc. These provisions were guided by the military psychologist Meyer, as convincingly evidenced by, for example, his following statement: several drives and moving impulses guide the behavior of a soldier, united in one motivation. These impulses are - sexual, parental instinct, self-preservation instincts, hunger and some others with selfishness at the head. The position of deep psychology about instincts as the driving force of human behavior has firmly entered military psychology and clearly appears in the works of many military psychologists. The general theoretical provisions of deep psychology about instincts as the ultimate drivers of human behavior have found a way out in the formulation and solution of the problems of motives. The conclusions obtained here are intended for practical activities to guide people and are actively used by military psychologists. According to deep theories, the primary motives for human behavior are primary deep drives. They are based on simple organic needs, some and encourage the body to work in the name of satisfying them. An activity performed by a person to satisfy his drives proceeds without the participation of consciousness. Moreover, consciousness, in their opinion, fetters attraction, which leads either to switching, or to neurosis.
An attempt to explain complex social phenomena and human manifestations on the basis of only elementary needs would have been too obvious artificiality. Therefore, as an intermediate connecting link between primary need and complex forms of human behavior in deep psychology, the so-called social needs are introduced, the nature of which is primitively simple. It is believed that the primary needs, manifesting themselves in the human environment, due to the inhibitory effect of consciousness, receive some imprint of it and, thus, become as if acquired, in this form they are represented by social needs. When speaking of these needs, military psychologists who hold the positions of deep theory always note that they are secondary, that they are ultimately based on primary needs. So, E. Boring, assuming the existence of such, in his concept of social, human needs, such as the desire for self-affirmation, immediately stipulates that he does not know the physiological basis of such self-affirmation, but it can be in the service of primary needs. A soldier’s desire to distinguish himself can be based on a desire, for example, to receive a large salary in order to marry his girlfriend. The introduction of the concept of need into military psychology from depth psychology also has practical meaning. Military psychologists, for example, based on the proposition that the satisfaction of needs leads to a psychological breakdown or their transition to inappropriate ways of manifestation, represent social conflicts in the army as a result of the dissatisfaction of certain primary needs, that is, as a certain phenomenon of a biological level. Deep psychology also has certain conclusions regarding the emotional manifestations of the human psyche. In this case, military psychologists traditionally rely on the theoretical calculations of depth psychologists regarding such concepts as feelings, emotions, etc., considering feelings (emotions) as the affective side of manifested instincts, deep drives. In general, in the understanding of deep psychology, a person is consistently excluded from the social environment not only by the elimination of consciousness, but also by the biologization of his basic mental processes. Theoretical and methodological guidelines of foreign military psychology are not limited to the theoretical legacy of behaviorism and deep psychology. Psychological science does not stand still. There are new schools, trends, orientations in psychology, developments that are quickly used in the interests of military-psychological research in Western countries. Only the main thing does not change - the pragmatism and biologization of military psychology. This is clearly manifested, for example, in the views of the German military psychologist K. Schoenau: Man is a living organism that responds to irritations. Irritations affecting the behavior, character and personality of a person come from the landscape, climate and environment. Man, like an animal, adapts to the environment, guided by the instinct of self-preservation. In the process of adaptation and interaction with other people, he develops hereditary inclinations, instincts, which form the basis of behavior.
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Military Psychology and Deep Theories

  1. Crib. Program questions in the discipline "Military Psychology", specialty "Psychology", 2012
    The history of the origin and development of psychological knowledge of military psychology. Periodization of the history of military psychology. Object, subject and main tasks of military psychology. Methodological principles of military history about the nature and role of mental development. The structural features of the nervous system and its impact on the life and work of military personnel. The concept of mental cognitive processes in
  2. Abstract. Military Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2009
    Discipline: military psychology Military psychology as a branch of Russian psychology. Definition of the term psychotherapy. Objects of psychological psychotherapy. The psychological structure of the situation. The dynamics of mental health in situations of various classes and subjective groups
  3. Military Psychology and Psychotherapy
    Military psychology is a branch of Russian psychology that in many respects naturally reflects both its condition, development, features, and the real needs of military practice. The first is due to the fact that during its post-war revival as a theory and practical activity, more than half a century passed in connection with the “mental” problems in the Armed Forces. Patriarchs of Military Psychology
  4. Military Psychology and Psychotherapy
    Military psychology is a branch of Russian psychology that in many respects naturally reflects both its condition, development, features, and the real needs of military practice. The first is due to the fact that more than half a century has passed during its post-war revival as a theory and practical activity in connection with the “mental” problems in the Armed Forces. Patriarchs of Military Psychology
  5. Lectures. Military Psychology, 2008
    Military psychology as a branch of psychological science. The state and prospects of the development of military psychology as a science and the ways of introducing its achievements into military practice. War as a socio-psychological phenomenon. The development of military psychology in Russia until 1917. The development of military psychology on the eve of and during the Great Patriotic War. The development of military psychology in the United States. Military development
  6. Educational Psychology and Military Psychology
    The interconnection of military and educational psychology is determined primarily by the role played by training and education in ensuring the combat effectiveness of the troops and fleet forces. Firstly, we are talking about the existing system of training military personnel, which make up the backbone of any armed forces. This system consists of several interconnected links including military faculties and institutes,
  7. Behaviorism and military psychology
    Behavioralism, or behavioral psychology that arose in the USA at the beginning of the 20th century, became widespread in Western countries and was one of the main theories of applied psychology. The so-called industrial applied psychology, social applied psychology, professional applied psychology, etc., follow methodologically and theoretically from behaviorism. This factor
  8. Tutorial. Military Psychology and its Applied Aspects, 2008
    Military psychology as a branch of psychological science. The subject of military psychology. Basic principles, methods and tasks of military psychology. The state and prospects of the development of military psychology as a science and the ways of introducing its achievements into military practice. The reasons for the increasing role of military psychology and its condition. Prospects for the development of military psychology and ways of introducing its achievements into the military
  9. Professional military psychology and its features
    Another important element of group military psychology is professional psychology. The army is divided into types of armed forces and types of troops, the conditions of activity of which differ significantly, thereby determining the existence of different ideas, points of view on the war through the prism of specific combat missions and how to carry them out. This is how P.I. understands group military psychology
  10. MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY
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  11. Military psychology as a branch of psychological science
    At present, more than ever, the hopes of military specialists and leaders of all levels are focused on military psychology. These expectations are connected with the special - applied role of military psychological science in ensuring the effectiveness of the vital activity of troops in both peacetime and wartime. In connection with the inclusion in the combat manuals of the types of the Armed Forces of a section on
  12. Military psychology as a branch of modern psychological science, its structure and functions
    Military psychology is one of the independent applied branches of modern psychological science. Like any other branch of psychology, it has its own subject and object of study, its own tasks and structure. It should be noted that despite the fairly long period of existence of this branch of psychological science, there is no generally accepted definition of military psychology. Therefore further,
  13. A.G. Karayani, I.V.Syromyatnikov. Applied Military Psychology, 2006
    The material presented in the book is aimed at expanding knowledge about the applied aspects of military psychology. It discusses issues related to the organization of psychological work in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in peacetime and during the conduct of hostilities in its most important areas, reveals the issues of organizing the interaction of psychologists with officials for psychological purposes
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