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Military psychology as a branch of psychological science

Study questions:

1. The subject of military psychology

2. Basic principles, methods and objectives of military psychology



Daily tasks solved by military specialists (leaders, teachers, military psychologists, etc.) require them to understand the patterns of manifestation and the formation of the psychology of the personality of a military serviceman and military teams in different types of military activities. These patterns are the subject of military psychology as a branch of psychological science.

Understanding the conditions of occurrence and the mechanisms of manifestation of certain mental processes, states and properties of the military, the practitioner can control them. That is, to take into account these regularities in their work, purposefully form and develop the necessary qualities for service and combat in soldiers, and also correct them if necessary.

The most important characteristic of the vital activity of servicemen is that it proceeds in the form of military-social interaction. This means that practically any actions, daily life and service, various types of military activities of military personnel are carried out as processes of their interaction. The social interaction of servicemen (their groups) is prompted by individual, group and social life activities. These needs are met in the framework of the main forms of interaction - communication and joint activities. If we take human society as a whole and in particular, then it is thanks to communication and joint activity that the living conditions and individuals themselves are produced, their mutual understanding is ensured and individual actions are coordinated, communities are formed - large and small social groups. A special type of interaction is opposition, struggle, social conflicts, including military ones.

The main socio-psychological problems that are relevant to military psychologists and other leaders include the following:

• The role of the moral and psychological factor in increasing the combat readiness and effectiveness of the combat activities of the troops and individual servicemen.

• Military leader, the style of his activities and communication, the conditions for the effectiveness of influence on his subordinates.

• Socio-psychological mass-like phenomena in combat conditions (panic, cohesion of military units).

• Ways to effectively influence morale, the psychological state of the enemy and the population, methods of psychological warfare.

• Socio-psychological characteristics of the personality of the serviceman, due to his socio-demographic, national, age, sex, professional, social class, etc. features.

• Socio-psychological characteristics of military groups (subunits, crews, guards, etc.) as small social groups.


• The state of relationships in the division as a small group, their optimization. Conflicts in the communication of military personnel, methods of their prevention and resolution.

• Socio-psychological adaptation of servicemen, as the process of their adaptation to the specifics of the new social status of a serviceman, entry into a specific military team.

Socio-psychological factors of the effectiveness of joint military activities - conditions of compatibility and responsiveness of military personnel, requirements for service communication, etc.

Currently, more and more scientists and practitioners are beginning to turn to the tasks that were set before military psychology in the 20-30s of the XX century, N.N.Golovin, in particular: studying the problems of the human subconscious, resolving the issue of searching for methods of linking the psychology of existing troops and the psychology of higher staffs, the implementation of the psychological examination of orders and decisions.

1. Assessment of the requirements imposed by the modern battlefield to the psychological qualities of a warrior, taking into account the content and volume of the transferred loads;

2. Disclosure of the laws governing the behavior and actions of soldiers and military teams in a situation of combat training and, especially, combat activities;

3. development of recommendations for the study of the individual characteristics of soldiers and military teams for use in the daily work of officers;

4. Search and finding ways to improve the efficiency of the processes of leadership of the soldiers and military teams, their training, rallying;

5. The search for means of a reliable assessment of the capabilities of soldiers and military teams and their expedient placement in terms of training profiles and tasks performed;

6. Development of ways and means of carrying out psychological training of personnel in a subunit, unit, connection to active hostilities in the conditions of a modern war;

7. Determination of means of conflict prevention, eradication of non-statutory relations and violations of military discipline in subunits and units;

8. Psychological support of mobilization, activation of personnel for the successful implementation of service and combat training tasks;

9. Creation of means and procedures for assessing the moral and psychological state of the personnel, preventing the decline and restoration of psychological stability in difficult conditions, preventing negative psychological reactions;

10. Armament of commanders, officers of educational structures with the knowledge of military psychology and the formation of a psychological mentality that ensures the achievement of the most productive relationships with subordinates;

11. Ensuring the activities of military psychologists, psychological services of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
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Military psychology as a branch of psychological science

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