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Military psychology as a branch of modern psychological science, its structure and functions

Military psychology is one of the independent applied branches of modern psychological science. Like any other branch of psychology, it has its own subject and object of study, its own tasks and structure. It should be noted that despite the relatively long period of existence of this branch of psychological science, there is no universally accepted definition of military psychology. Therefore, when speaking about military psychology, we will proceed from the following definition: military psychology is a branch of psychology that studies the patterns of manifestation of the human psyche and the psychology of a military team in the performance of professional duties and tasks due to the specifics of military service.

Thus, the object of military psychology are people undergoing military service by conscription or contract, as well as those who can be involved in the performance of military duty in wartime. In addition, military groups are the object of military psychology.

Accordingly, the subject of military psychology is the manifestation of the psyche of a soldier in various conditions of military professional activity, as well as psychological processes, states and properties characteristic of military teams.

Modern Armed Forces - this is a very complex and diverse body. Normal functioning of this organism is possible only under the condition of coordinated actions of all its structural elements aimed at maintaining high combat readiness of units and divisions. Probably, among the main areas of activity of representatives of state power and the military leadership of the country, two areas are the most important for maintaining high combat readiness of the Armed Forces. These include the improvement of technical equipment and an increase in the level of professional and psychological readiness of the personnel of units and subunits to perform functional duties in a combat situation.

Military psychology is directly related to the second direction. Its main tasks and areas of research are:

• development of methods for recruiting units and subunits of the Armed Forces on the basis of taking into account the individual psychological and personal characteristics of military personnel;

• identifying ways to improve the effectiveness of the training process based on the individual psychological and personal characteristics of military personnel in the organization and implementation of military professional training;

• development of a methodology for the psychological support of professional activities of military personnel in a combat situation;

• development of psychological methods for rallying military units and strengthening military discipline in order to increase the effectiveness of the activities of units and subunits;

• development of methods for the psychological support of combat duty, guard and garrison services, etc.

The listed tasks are integral in their essence, that is, they generalize in themselves a whole range of other practical tasks. For example, the development of methods for improving the efficiency and quality of staffing units and subunits of the Armed Forces based on taking into account the individual psychological and personal characteristics of military personnel in practice involves the following tasks:

• development of professiograms and psychograms of military specialties;

• development of psychodiagnostics methods of professionally important quality of a serviceman;

• development of criteria for compliance with the level of development of professionally important qualities of a soldier with the requirements of a military specialty;

• development of the organizational basis for measures for the professional psychological selection of military personnel;

• psychological support of career guidance events.

In turn, such a direction of research in military psychology, as increasing the effectiveness of vocational training on the basis of taking into account the individual psychological and personal characteristics of military personnel, involves solving the following tasks:

• development of organizational and methodological bases of psychological support of the educational process;

• development of methods for psychodiagnostics of the status of military personnel in order to identify persons experiencing difficulties in military-professional adaptation;

• development of methods for correcting the functional state of the body of military personnel and providing psychological assistance in order to increase the effectiveness of adaptation to the conditions of military professional activity and prevent mental and psychosomatic disorders;

• development of the psychological foundations of the organization of the educational process and methods of pedagogical influence on military personnel, taking into account their individual psychological and personal characteristics, etc.

The development of a methodology for the psychological support of professional activities of military personnel in a combat situation is another very complex and voluminous area of ​​research in military psychology.
It involves solving the following practical problems:

• study of the influence of factors of a combat situation, including the real vital threat, on the mental state of servicemen;

• development of methods for predicting the effectiveness of a serviceman’s activities in a combat situation based on his individual psychological and personal characteristics;

• development of scientific and methodological bases for staffing units for activities in a combat situation based on an assessment of the degree of psychological readiness of military personnel for such activities;

• development of methods for effective correction of the functional status of military personnel in a combat situation;

• search for effective ways and methods of psychological rehabilitation of servicemen after fulfilling their professional duties in the extreme conditions of activity in order to prevent post-traumatic stress syndrome and restore professional working capacity;

• substantiation of psychological methods aimed at the formation of the mental readiness of servicemen to combat activities, including the development of their emotional-volitional and stress resistance, as well as the development and testing of methods for self-regulation of the mental state.

Another line of research in military psychology is associated with the development of psychological methods of rallying military units and strengthening military discipline in order to increase the effectiveness of the activities of units and subunits. This direction involves the solution of the following practical tasks:

• study of psychological mechanisms and patterns of formation and development of military teams, as well as the formation of the climate in the military team;

• search for ways and development of psychological methods for strengthening military discipline and crime prevention;

• development of methods for managing a military team on the basis of taking into account its psychological characteristics and patterns of development.

It should be noted that among the above tasks and areas, only the main ones are given. Changes in the situation, the emergence of new factors affecting the nature of the activities of both individual military personnel and entire military teams predetermine the possibility of the emergence of new tasks that military psychology must solve.

At the same time, one can definitely say that modern military psychology is not only an independent, but also a synthetic branch of psychological science, since military psychologists use knowledge from other branches of psychology, including social psychology and labor psychology, to solve their problems. and engineering psychology, educational psychology, medical psychology, etc. It is therefore very difficult to imagine the structure of military psychology as an independent discipline. It is more correct to assume that its structure is largely determined by the level of development of psychological science in general.
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Military psychology as a branch of modern psychological science, its structure and functions

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