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The military collective, like any collective of our society, is characterized by all the most common signs. But it has its own characteristics that characterize this team as a military. Firstly, the military team is characterized by a specific main task and the reason for its existence - the protection and defense of the state sovereignty of the Russian Federation. Moreover, its solution is achieved by violent means with the help of weapons. And this determines the uniqueness of norms and rules of behavior and relationships between team members. Secondly, military collectives provide for strict centralization of management and the division of people into service categories, which clearly regulates their duties and rights. Thirdly, military collectives are characterized by relative uniformity and stability of activity, the length of stay of members of the collective in the conditions of joint activity. Other features of military collectives include the isolation of a significant part of the collective from families, relatives, close friends, the heterogeneity of members of the military collective, and some others. At the same time, it should be noted that the specifics of the professional activities of the military, their personal and educational characteristics, leave a peculiar (specific) imprint on interpersonal (intra-collective) relations. What, then, are the specific features of the collectives of military units? As analysis shows, these include:

1. Increased responsibility for the solution of official, shift and combat missions, especially during a military campaign;

2. A dynamic and ongoing combat training process;

3. Relative isolation in professional activities as part of calculations, combat units and crews;

4. Extremeness of the watch and combat tasks;

5. Heterogeneity of the collective (contract servicemen and conscription servicemen);

The core in the concept of the military unit collective is the idea of ​​interpersonal relations of military personnel, forming its socio-psychological characteristic.

In military units there is a wide variety of grassroots (primary) teams. The structure of their psychology has a lot in common. At the same time, they all differ from each other. This is explained by the fact that military collectives solve various problems and have their own military professional features (for example, depending on the structural unit). Military collectives are also distinguished by the type of intra-collective communication: in some collectives it forms the basis of collective activity (where there are collective military equipment and weapons serviced by a group of specialist soldiers), in others - communication takes place mainly at training sessions, meetings, during the holidays, as the members of the team are mainly engaged in individual military professional activities. Teams created in accordance with the regular organizational structure (unit) are usually called the main (formal) military collectives. They also include sports, art groups, circles, sections and other associations of interests regulated by relevant orders. A team that provides direct interaction of servicemen with each other is called contact. Contact teams are organizationally included in the primary, operating within the same unit. However, it happens that primary and contact groups are somewhat different in their group psychology. In this case, the strength of the primary team (unit) is reduced. Each serviceman, of course, can be a member of several groups: first of all, the main (military-professional), as well as others. For example, being a specific specialist in the team of a unit, he, as a participant in amateur performances, is part of the corresponding circle, and as an athlete, he is a member of the team of the sports section and so on. However, the diversity of military collectives does not interfere, but, on the contrary, helps to rally people around their main goals and objectives, to turn them into a real military organization, stable and reliable under any most difficult circumstances. At the same time, it is very important for the unit commander (chief) to take into account in his leadership not only the level of social community of his subordinates, but some other features, for example, the number of subordinates, the structure of the unit and the specifics of the military professional and other tasks that they solve. It is their peculiar combination in each specific case that allowed military psychologists to distinguish several types of collectives, among which, first of all, are presented:

• Primary collectives - collectives with direct contact, interaction among themselves;

• Secondary collectives - collectives consisting of several primary ones. They can be in indirect interaction, communication among themselves

Summarizing the above, we can conclude that the formation of military collectives is a consequence of the action of both objective laws and the subjective activities of its members. However, it must be borne in mind that people interacting within a specific military or other collective act as carriers of the individual psyche and unique personal psychology. As a result of ongoing contacts at the interpersonal level, peculiar psychological phenomena are formed, which are called the psychology of the team.

In essence, the psychology of the collective is those immediate psychological reactions that are formed as a result of interpersonal interactions of military personnel with other members of the collective and fixed as universally recognized. In other words, this is a complex of psychological connections between people that occurs in the process of communication, life together, official, guard, combat and any other activity, thanks to which they acquire the ability to act as a whole. Separate representations that are not connected in a logical scheme are sufficient to maintain normal everyday relationships, but they do not allow you to deeply navigate and properly react to ongoing social events, to foresee and take into account the consequences of committed actions and deeds. Undoubtedly, a psychological phenomenon of a new type should appear here, reflecting the attitude to current events and the phenomena of the whole collective. If we talk about the structure of the psychology of the team, that is, about the psychological components in which its content is contained, then it can be represented in two groups:

1. A group of personal socio-psychological phenomena arising from the direct interaction of military personnel with each other. These include claims, self-assertion of a person, leadership, authority, psychological infection, mutual requirements and suggestions, imitation, conformism, psychological compatibility, identification, empathy, sympathy or antipathy, etc. Often, in the psychological literature, the listed phenomena of collective psychology are used to reveal the contents of interpersonal relationship.

2. A group of collective socio-psychological phenomena, among which, first of all, collective opinion, collective mood, collective needs and collective traditions stand out.
Some domestic psychologists also include collective habits, requests, values ​​(interests, views, beliefs), psychological readiness and stability, the moral climate of the team, and a number of other components. Some of the results of the joint mental activity of the military - common views and positions on fundamental issues, agreed decisions on the current problems of the service, as well as the process of their formation are called collective opinion. Sometimes in this case they speak of collective thought or collective reason. At its core, collective opinion is an aggregate value judgment expressing the attitude of a military collective or its greater part to objects, phenomena or events of the surrounding world. It expresses the position, views, beliefs and value orientations of military personnel. Its main types include, first of all, the official (expressed openly) and unofficial (hidden from other persons, primarily from among the top management) collective opinion. It should be borne in mind that it is the unofficial opinion of the collective that most significantly affects the formation of other socio-psychological phenomena in a given social community (group or collective). The socio-psychological climate of the team is always imbued with a complex range of emotions, feelings and passions that take hold of its members and significantly affect its life and work. This phenomenon in psychology is called the collective mood. The collective mood is the emotional reactions of the collective to the phenomena of the objective world that occur in a certain period of time. The next socio-psychological phenomenon that manifests itself in the course of interpersonal interaction is collective needs. At its core, this is a psychological reflection of the objective or subjective needs of the collective in material or spiritual products (values). Their content is formed under the influence of various objective and subjective factors affecting the functioning of a certain social community of people. An equally important influence on the functioning of the collective is exerted by collective traditions. They are relatively stable rules, norms and stereotypes of behavior, actions and communication in specific conditions (situations) that have developed on the basis of long experience of joint official (guard, combat) activities, which have become the need of each or most of the members of the team. The main types of traditions include service, professional, social, sports and several others.

A very important socio-psychological phenomenon of the military unit is leadership. It is believed that leadership is the ability to influence both an individual and a group, directing their efforts to achieve their goals. This is a natural socio-psychological process, built on the influence of a person’s personal authority on the behavior of all members of a group or a certain part of it. Moreover, under the influence is understood such actions of a person that make a change in the behavior, relationships and feelings of another person. It can be provided through ideas, spoken and written word, suggestion, persuasion, emotional infection, coercion, personal authority or example. Any group that solves a problem significant to it always puts forward a leader for its solution, which can be defined as a person who can unite people in order to achieve any goal. Consequently, the concept of “leader” acquires meaning only with the concept of “goal”. Moreover, its presence is always the presence of at least one follower. The role of a leader is the ability to lead people along, to ensure the existence of such connections in the system of interpersonal relationships that would contribute to solving specific problems within the framework of a single goal. Thus, the leader is an element of streamlining the system of human interaction. Whether an officer is suitable for the role of a leader depends, first of all, on recognition by him of other subordinates of the qualities of superiority, inspiring them with faith in him and encouraging him to recognize his influence on himself. Natural leadership - when the influence comes from the recognition by other members of the group (collective) of the personal superiority of the leader. Moreover, it is important not that the officer possesses the qualities of superiority, but that his subordinates recognize the possession of these qualities. Very often, the influence of a leader depends on the situation. Higher intelligence, training, or experience can only be a partial basis for leadership. The tendency to domination is usually crucial, namely, the ability to take initiative in interpersonal relationships, direct the attention of others, offer them solutions, and the ability to speak their language.

An important generalized characteristic of any military collective is its orientation (purposefulness), which is a system of collective goals and tasks of the near and future prospects. Purposefulness reflects the generalized socially significant face of the unit, the nature of its actions, collective interests, requests, and aspirations. However, to strengthen the educational role of the collective, it is not enough to determine only the direction of its activity. It is important to specify the goals of the team. Break them down, determine the contribution of each soldier to the common cause, implement these goals in the minds of subordinates, and arouse interest in their achievement. The nature and content of the orientation of the military collective is largely determined by the following characteristic, which is group (collective) compatibility, which is the ability of military personnel to coordinate (make consistent) their actions in various types of joint activities. In other words, this is the effect of a combination of interaction between military personnel, which reflects the level of satisfaction of military personnel in joint military professional activities. The result of optimal collective compatibility and one of the conditions for the effective functioning of a military unit is team cohesion, which is a characteristic of the strength, unity and stability of interpersonal interactions between military personnel. Among its main indicators are the clarity, coherence and effectiveness of joint group activities. In turn, collective cohesion is reflected in the quantitative indicators of the following characteristics, which are represented by collective coherence (harmony, coherence). Its essence lies in the effect of a combination of interaction between military personnel, which reflects the level of the maximum possible success of joint activities at minimal cost amid significant subjective satisfaction with joint activities. In other words, this is the result of the successful interaction of military personnel in a specific activity (during the development of tasks and standards, services, etc.). The highest degree of collective (group) coherence is characterized by its coherence, which arises in the process of joint activity of personnel from the aggregate of collective efforts and causes the military personnel to feel pride in their team, manifestations of partnership, mutual assistance, coordination of efforts, and creative attitude to business.
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